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Negative Externalities: Marijuana v. Alcohol

The marijuana versus alcohol debate is one that almost everyone has participated in. The statistics on which is more detrimental to the body have been broadcast in every news report and Buzzfeed blog. However, it is not how these drugs negatively affect one person that is the most important issue. The cost to the public is far more telling of which is worse than the cost to one’s personal health. People will do whatever they desire behind closed doors, it is when the effects spill onto society that there are serious consequences. The negative externalities of alcohol far exceed those of marijuana, making alcohol the worse drug for society. 
Money obviously affects society greatly. The cost of the police force and prison upkeep comes directly from people because it comes from state and federal taxes. Therefore it is considered a burden on the public to have excessive expenses in policing and imprisoning people for alcohol and marijuana. One would think that because marijuana is illegal the cost of policing it would be much higher. However, that is not the case. In England for example, “the cost of policing cannabis use was only £500 million a year, mainly for issuing possession warning notices, compared with the £6 billion a year bill for policing the use of alcohol, including dealing with people who were drunk and disorderly.” It took about 12x the money to police marijuana to police alcohol. The crimes associated with marijuana are normally ones that only affect the criminals. For example distribution and possession are the main crimes people are arrested for in conjunction with marijuana. Those crimes only affect the person who is committing the crime. By contrast, crimes associated with alcohol impact multiple people. Examples are: DUIs, drunk and disorderlies, sexual or physical assault, and even manslaughter or murder. All of these affect people who have nothing to do with alcohol. 27% of aggravated assaults had alcohol involved and 37% of rapes and sexual assaults had alcohol involved. Roughly half of all homicides in the U.S were related to alcohol consumption. Overall 5.3 million or 36% of people in prison were drinking or under the influence of alcohol at the time of the convicted crime. There is no statistically credible evidence of marijuana being linked to violence. Of course, this may be due to the fact that there is a smaller pool of users to pull data from. (A poll showed that 41% of the American population have tried marijuana. Whereas, 51% of Americans (18 or older) are regular alcohol drinkers.) Alcohol is a much greater cost to society not only financially but with violence against people. Marijuana is rarely linked to violent crimes, and if it were to be legalized the cost of arresting people for possession and distribution would no longer be a factor.

Death and injury also have a large social cost, because of the fees that come with them.  Especially injury because then the injured person has to go to the hospital. Healthcare fees are also taken from public taxes. In 2010, 2,669,987 people were hospitalized in the US for either Alcohol Dependence Syndrome (1,013,634), Non-dependent abuse of alcohol (774,177), Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis (852,354), or Alcohol Poisoning (29,822). Any one or combination of these health emergencies could kill a person. So there is the cost to the individual, but there is also cost to the hospital, which means a higher price for the public. These people must be treated and sometimes have life saving surgeries (a liver transplant for example). There is little credible data on marijuana induced hospitalizations. The most reliable of data is a study of hospitalizations from 1961 to 1969 in Los Angeles. The study showed that of the 701,057 patients admitted, nine were admitted regarding marijuana use. Three patients had the mild effects that marijuana induces on everyone, dizziness or euphoria, one patient was diagnosed with schizophrenia, but his was a pre-existing condition. The others presented symptoms of simply ingesting too much, such as vomiting, fever, and chills. Though the data is older, it still stands that there are hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations due to alcohol, while there are hundreds (at most) due to marijuana. And of those marijuana induced hospitalizations, the “injuries” were only to the individual. Whereas with alcohol injuries other people can be hurt, like someone killed because they were hit by a drunk driver. Alcohol creates a greater risk for injury to the individual and others.

When asked, most people might say that because marijuana is more of a "drug" in the traditional sense of the word, it is worse for society. But upon closer inspection, alcohol has a greater cost to society and therefore is the more harmful drug. Marijuana has a negative connotation because the general public considers it to be a drug and not alcohol. They are both drugs, yet one has more positive uses than just recreational use. Marijuana, or more specifically the cannabis plant can be used for medicine, food, clothes, paper, and many other things. Alcohol is only a recreational drug, sterilizing agent, and sometimes used as fuel. There are more uses for alcohol other than recreation, but there are far more positive uses for the cannabis plant. Alcohol has more negative externalities and fewer positive uses. Therefore, in terms of societal cost, alcohol is the more detrimental drug.


Soy Tony Romo


Mellamo Tony Romo, el mariscal de campo numeros nueve para los vaqueros. Soy trienta y cuatro.

Soy deportista y bajo. Me gusta practicar deportes y comer. Odio cantar y nadar.

Cuando tengo tiempo libre los fines de semana me gusta descansar. Me interesa dormir,jugar y ir de compras. Soy mas o menos bajo para los jugardores de Futbol Americano. Soy por lo general serio cuando juego Futbol. Me encanta leer jeugos antes de cada juego.
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Soy adriana lima,taytiana

Screenshot 2014-11-07 at 11.04.30 AM
Me llamos Adriana lima. Tengo 33 años. soy de y virvir en Salvador, Brazil. 

Yo soy un modelo y bastante famosa . Mis fans dicen que soy georgous para un madre. es ceirto.

Me gusta modelado y pasar tiempo con mis dos hojos, también me gusta vir disportes No me gustano me gusta el uso de las máquinas cuando trabajo fuera. Me encanta ir a la misa dominical en la iglesia.
¿Tengo gusta en la iglesia?
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Me llamo Ritsu Onodera

Hola, me llamo Ritsu Onodera, tengo veinticinco años. Soy de Japan. Soy bajo, delgado, timido, guapo, trabajador, inteligente,y artístico. Soy mucho amable y bobo. Me encanta takano, y me gusta salir con mi novio takano. Me gusto escribir y leer manga. Tengo moreno pelo. Soy descansar vago nunca. a veces soy cocinar para takano. No me gusto nada correr!  un poco dormir. Me gusta hamburguesa 

¿ te gusta leer manga?
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U.S. High Prison Population.

The United states is a first world country, with a relatively wealthy population in comparison to other countries. The country is considered an upstanding and prospering nation. However, the United States has the highest incarcerated population of any country in the world. The American criminal justice system has caused this large and growing amount of prisoners. The United states has an overly high incarceration rate, which is due to severe prison sentences of specific groups of people for drug related crimes, and a poor criminal reformation system which keeps them trapped in the prison system.

The United States has a population of over three hundred million people, making it the third most populated country in the world. Despite being less than a third the size of the two most populated countries, the United States has the world’s largest population of incarcerated people, around 2.3 million. More than 0.7% of Americans are currently incarcerated. One percent of adults over the age of eighteen in the United States are currently in prison. (NY Times). The fact that the United States criminal justice system puts so many offenders in prison causes the country to have an overly high crime rate because so many people are convicted.  The way that it’s criminal justice system works is what is causing this high population.

The amount of prisoners in the U.S. has increased over time. This increase isn’t entirely due to an increase of crime overall, rather the increase of a specific type of crime that has been greatly penalised by the justice system in recent years. The United states illegality on the selling and usage of certain drugs has resulted in a massive increase in the number of arrests.In 2012, 1.55 million people were arrested on drug related charges (Drug Penalties for drug related crimes can be severe, and have resulted in increases in the number of arrests. Introducing a new type of crime by placing such heavy penalties on drugs.

The goal of prison is to punish criminals. Ideally prisoners should leave prison with a changed attitude towards their crime, and hopefully will not commit one again. Often this isn’t the case. 68% of all released prisoners end up back in prison within three years of their release. This proves that the prison system is ineffective for most people. This is because the punishment of felons doesn’t always help them. Incarceration might make someone more wary of committing a crime, but they often they have no other ways to make a living but to live a life of crime, and that doesn’t often change after they get out of prison (Barrish). United states prison’s often do not reform criminals. Prison is a harsh place, and prisoners may feel alienated and depressed. But these emotions don’t always serve as a punishment, rather they just negatively affect the mental health of the prisoners, which doesn’t help to reform them. If anything it can make them feel like outcasts of society, which does not aid them to be productive members of it.  Also being surrounded by other criminals creates an atmosphere of concentration crime, and that doesn’t help prisoners to get away from that lifestyle (Henry).

“In seeking to severely penalize the criminals away behind safe walls actually provides them with the means of greater strength for future atrocities glorious and otherwise.” Jack Kerouac, author and former prisoner.

This is why prisoners usually end up back in the prison system.

Targeting specific ethnic groups, while unjust is an effective way of arresting a lot of people. There is racial profiling in the U.S. criminal justice system. Police specifically target neighborhoods with high black and hispanic populations, thus arresting more blacks and hispanics. Only fourteen percent of drug users are black, but forty five percent of people incarcerated for drug related offenses are black. White’s and Black’s use and sell illegal drugs about the same amount. That means that a greater percentage of blacks are being are being arrested for a crime than whites, when both actually commit the crime at the same rate (Rushing). This shows that police are racially profiling blacks. Targeting these ethnic groups has caused an increase in prison population because the police are paying a lot of attention to areas with a concentration of crime caused by non-white people. This racism allows the police to target these areas and arrest a lot of people from them.

The high prison population in the United States has to do with the fact that to many people are being sent to prison for too long, and too many people are returning after they are released. The country is trapped in a cycle of high incarceration rates. Providing for these 2.3 million prisoners is expensive and is costing taxpayers a lot of money. The police cracking down on drugs, and targeting groups of people who use them is resulting in a large number of arrests. Many prisoners are not becoming productive members of society, they’re just trapped in this cycle of crime, which will keep hurting society, both socially and economically.

Works Cited:

  1. Barrish, Cris. "Study: 8 in 10 Released Inmates Return to Del. Prisons."USA Today. Gannett, 31 July 2013. Web. 30 Sept. 2014. <>

  2. Henry, Stuart, Ph.D. "Defining Punishment and How It Works." On the Effectiveness of Prison as Punishment. Wayne State University, 24 Oct. 2003. Web. 30 Sept. 2014. <>.

  3. Liptak, Adam. "U.S. Prison Population Dwarfs That of Other Nations." New York Times, 23 Apr. 2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2014. <>.

  4. Rushing, Keith. "The Reasons Why So Many Black People Are in Prison Go Well Beyond Profiling." The Huffington Post., 23 June 2011. Web. 30 Sept. 2014. <>.

  5. "Drug War Statistics." Drug Policy Alliance, 2014. Web. 30 Sept. 2014. <>.

  6. "Population of All Countries of the World / All National Populations Largest to Smallest -" Population of All Countries of the World / All National Populations Largest to Smallest - Worldatlas, n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <>. Web. 30 Sept. 2014.


Soy Lupe fiasco

Hola me llamo Lupe fiasco. Tengo trienta y dos años. Soy de Chicago pero vivo en Atlanta. Soy alto, artistico,serio, y trabajador.

Me fascina veer la tele, dormir, y andar en patienta.

Tambien, me gusta cantar, escribir, yjugar videojuegos.

¿Te gusta es cantar?
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Soy Chase Utley

Hola.  Soy Chase Utley.  Soy de Calafornia, pero vivo en filadelphia.  Tengo treinta y cinco anos.  Soy alto y deportista, porque yo juego el besibol.  Soy super famoso.  Mi equipo es los Filadelphia Phillies.  

Me gusta jugar todos los deportes, y jugar video juegos.  Mu gusta dibujar y comer un poco.  No me gusta leer o limpiar nada.  

Te gusta beisbol?

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Soy Morgan Freeman

¡Hola! Me llama Morgan Freeman. Tengo setenta y siete años. Soy de Tennessee pero vivo en New York City y Mississippi.

Soy alto, deporitista bestante famoso. Soy cómico y serio.

Me gusta ir al cine. No me gusta nada cantar. Soy muy talentoso. Me fascina musica. ​Me gusta Imagine Dragons y Green Day. No me gusta nada Uno Direction.

¿Te gusta ir al cine?
morgan freeman
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Me llamo Michael Vick!

Hola, Me llamo Michael Vick. Tengo 34 años. Soy de Virginia, pero vivo New York.

Soy famoso fútbol americano. Me gusta practicar deportes. Mariscal de campo (quarterback) New York Jets. Sin embargo, judué Atlanta and Filadelfia.

Me gusta escuchar música. Me encanta correr y tremendamente rápido (fast). No, me gusta nada videojuegos. Soy trabajordpr y inteligente.

¿Te gusta fútbol americano?    

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Madison Militello

Hola, me llamo Madison Militello. Tengo catorce años. Soy de Filadelphia. 
Soy baja, divertida, e delgado. Soy bastante sociable. 
Me encanta pasar un rato con amigos cuando tengo tiempo libre. Me encanta ir de compras. No me gusta nada ayudar en casa. Me gusta escuchar musica cuando tengo tiempo libre.
¿Te gusta eschuar ?

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I Am Malala

Melissa Alvarez | Earth Stream


No one really knew about the Swat Valley district in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, and no one really knew that the Taliban were occupying this Pakistani Province, or the type of limits and restraints the women were being forced to live by. No one really ever knows about what’s really happening worldwide unless it’s in front of their own eyes. In front of 15 year old Malala Yousafzai’s eyes before everything changed in her life, was a gun at point-blank range and the sound of a bullet ringing through her ears.

In the year 2009, 11 year old Malala Yousafzai wrote a blog for BBC originally under a pseudonym, about what her life was like under the occupation of the Taliban in her home town of Mingora. The Taliban restricted girls from being able to attend school and receive a quality education (let alone any education), and if disobeyed, they would more than likely be facing death. Malala wrote all about how she believes everyone deserves equal rights to an education. She began giving interviews, appearing on TV, speaking with her father at events, taking part in a documentary for the New York Times. She slowly but surely became popularized from the outside, which posed a threat to the Taliban that a teenage girl was speaking out against them. On the afternoon of October 9th, 2012, the Taliban boarded the school bus Malala was taking, and shot her in the head while injuring two others. Yousafzai’s incredible recovery has only achieved the opposite of the Taliban’s hopes. Malala is now the youngest Nobel Peace Prize recipient in history for her bravery and activism, and she continues to speak at major events (the United Nations, the Liberty Medal award ceremony, the Forbe’s Best Inventors Under 30, etc.), and continues to spread her cause globally.

The book “I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up For Education and Was Shot by the Taliban” leaves you wondering about what’s next on Malala’s list of remarkable experiences. She writes all about the love and melancholy she feels by having to be separated from her home in Pakistan. Readers are taken back to the short amount of time Malala spent as an adolescent, with her childhood stories and observations she made about her family early on. She writes about how and why her father was such an inspiration and motivator to her when she needed it, and how he’s been there every step of the way with her. The descriptiveness throughout the entire book gives the audience a very vivid and surreal experience, almost as if these are our memories and not hers. From the very beginning of the book, any reader is caught and fished in as Malala leaves them wanting more. From the very beginning, the story line cuts right to the chase down to the moment they pulled the trigger to her head. You won’t be able to put it down.

Some major themes recognized in this book are survival, family, the right to an education, and the definition of beauty. Malala has overcome and written not only about hardships she’s experienced personally, but the hardships her mother has also experienced, and the women before her. It is not uncommon in her Valley for women to give up their rights just to stay home, cook, clean, and raise sons. It is what they’ve been programmed to do by their ancestors, but it is something Malala has refused to do with the help and guidance of her father. Throughout this tale, you will also pick up on a little bit of ‘Pashto’ as Malala refers to certain things with certain titles from her native language (with an english translation accompanied). You will learn more about family than ever before, and the power of what the support from the right people can help you to accomplish. Also from this book will be a strong reminder about home and what it means to have a place you come from and find to be beautiful in every way that is your own; Be it the bustling city streets of New York, to the beautiful silence of the Mingora mountains, we each have some place to call home and will remember to love after finishing this book.

Malala to me almost represents a real-life Katniss Everdeen. She is very much the survivor, the motivator, the one who never loses sight of her beliefs, and the one who stood out. If you are interested to hear a very visual tale of survival, near death experiences, and a personal comeback into a new and more powerful life that the author is still adjusting to, this book is very highly recommended.

Title: I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up For Education and Was Shot by the Taliban

Author: Malala Yousafzai with Christina Lamb

Publisher: Little, Brown and Company

Date of Publication: November 26th, 2013

Pages: 464

Genre: Non-Fiction

Link to creative piece:

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Soy Mark Zuckerberg


Hola, Me llamo es Mark Zuckerberg. Tengo treinta y tres años. Soy de White Plains, NY pero vivo en Palo Alto, California.

Me gusta (mucho) jugar con mi teléfono. Soy súper inteligente. Me algo famoso.

Me gusta Facebook. Soy creativo. Soy algo serio en trabajar. Me gusta (mucho) dinero. Soy billionare. Soy más o menos alto.

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Soy Aaron Ash (Yamimash)

​Hola, mi nombre es Aaron Ash, aka Yamimash. Tengo 23 años, mi cumpleaños es veinticinco de agosto. Pero vivo en London, England. Soy de costumbre tímido, pero muy comico. Es cierto, soy muy, muy adorable. c; Me encanta jugar videojuegos en YouTube. Soy por lo general bobo. Soy amigo de Markiplier!
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Soy Drake

Hola, me llamo Drake. Tengo 28 años. Soy de Toronto, Canada pero vivo en America.

Soy alto, talentoso y bastante famoso. Las chicas dicen que soy muy guapo. Es cierto.

Me gusta música. No me gusta nada hablar por teléfono porque es aburrido. Prefiero cantar y rap tiempo con mi pasar un rato con amigos. Me encanta escuchar descansar y tranquilo. 

¿Te gusta cantar y rap?
Drake_5_AM_In_Toronto (1)
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Soy Jon Stewart

Jon Stewart
¡Hola! ¿Comó estas? Yo soy muy bien. Me llamo Jon Stewart. Tengo 51 años. Yo soy un poco viejo, pero yo soy muy chevere. Soy de New York, y yo vivo en Tribeca, New York City. 

Yo soy muy divertido, y  famoso. Tambien soy bastante bobo. Yo soy súper súper comico. Tambien, yo tengo una familia impresionante. 

Me gusta ver la tele y leer. Me encanta pasar tiempo con mi familia, y me gusta mucho pasar un rato con amigos. Tambien me fascina escuchar musica y hablar con Stephen Colbert, mi amigo bueno. Me gusta ir al cine, sin embargo no me gusta nada ir de compras, porque es súper aburrido.

¿Te gusta contar chistes?
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Soy Tyler Hoechlin

Hola, me nombre es Tyler Hoechlin. Tengo 27 años. Soy de Californi, Corona pero vivi en Filadelphia.

Soy alto, deportista y muy famoso. Las Chicas y Chico dicen que soy supér guapos. Es cierto.

Me gusta acto. Mis fans dicen que talentosa. No me gusta nada escribir. Prefiero correr y pasar tiempo con mi amigos. Me encanta trabajar. Me encanata laboral con Dylan O'brian, Tyler Posey, y Holland Roden.
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Soy Tyler posey

tlyer posey
Holla, Me llamo Tyler posey, Tengo 23 años. soy de Santa Monica 

Soy alto,deportista, y muy famoso.  Mis fans dicen yo ta muy guapo.

Me encanta acto. Soy muy comico. No me gusta nada cantar, prefiero pasar un rato con amigos(dylan obrien). Me gusta nadar y jugar video juegos. Me fascina Tyler Hoechlin y Crstal Reed pero no me gusta nadacolton hayes.
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Mark Fishbach (Markiplier)

Screenshot 2014-11-06 at 12.41.20.pngMArkiplier.jpg

Me llamo Mark Fishbach aka Markiplier. Tengo 25 anos. Soy de Hawaii pero vivo en Ohio. Soy muy cómico, súper lindo, tremendamente hermoso y bastante guapo. Es cierto. Me encantar jugar videogames con mi amigos. Te gusta jugar videojuegos?
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Soy Avery Measley

avery measley
Hola me llamo Avery Measley. Mi cumpleaños es uno de mayo. Soy muy cómica.  Soy tiene catorce anos.  Soy es de filadelfia. Soy es muy guapa. Soy es delgada. Mi encanta Super Natural. Me gusta dormir los sábado y domingo.

¿Te gusta nadar?

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