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The Secret Past of Our Modern Life

Process Paper:

Since I am all ready interested in the sciences, it wasn’t a leap to research the history of electricity. I knew all the technical and science aspects but not how it was adopted into the U.S. and the world. The idea was to choose a topic that is related to today but one that we take for granted or don’t necessary ask, “What is the history of this”? I thought it would be very interesting to research how it became so deeply in every aspect of our life. I knew Edison invented the light bulb and little bit on Tesla but not the relationship between the two. Or how F.D.R. used R.E.A. to make electricity spread across the U.S.

I watched documentaries about the subject, although they weren’t very specific into my topic I gathered a lot of information from them. Over the course of about 2 to 3 months I compiled a document of the information, including essays that were used for another project. Also, finding primary sources such as actual legislature and real footage, by the way of the Internet which is where the other facts came from. They helped the video aspect as-well. The other archival footage was really helpful in explaining facts and it gave a sense of the past - since most of them where made in the 1930-1960’s. Most of the information for the video was from articles and secondary sources. 

I choose to do a video to be more engaging and entertaining than just a website with text and pictures. As well as, it would be a more creative project that just facts and point of views in words. I represented themes visually and let people actually see what happened in history with footage. I tried to make it more of an entertaining movie rather than me just talking about facts on facts. Instead of trying to visual the scenes in your own head. For the programs, I used iMovie to make the video. The video is from various websites, mainly youtube, mostly primary. I compiled the video with dramatic scores, and near the era music, to get into the time of what it was like back then.

After the introduction the project goes into the three parts of the NHD theme, Revolution, Reaction and Reform. The revolution part is the first steps of electricity and how it was started. That sparked, no pun intended, an electricity race across the country and it primarily between two minds who had different ideas on the topic. The Reaction part of the project is how Edison reacted to Tesla, what he did to try to squash Tesla’s ideas and inventions. By electrocuting an elephant and making the electric chair. Finally the reform part is when the government, F.D.R., got involved and how they implemented it across the country. There is no conclusion because I wanted the audience to make their own conclusions, to think about the video and how it relates to their life.



"The Missing Secrets Of Nikola Tesla - YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. 29 Oct. 2009. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

A video showing the history of Nikola Tesla ranging from childhood to latter life. Basically the last half talks about a death ray and world peace (not really useful). But the first half talks about the history of him, Edison and Westinghouse. Which I could use to provide some background during the article.

"Welcome to the Tesla Memorial Society of New York Website." Tesla Memorial Society of New York. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

This source has a lot of good information on the power plant at Niagara falls the T and W made. It shows all the parts of the plant how the work and how things were arranged to have it completed. Also, a couple good primary sources such as letters that may help. This will really help with my first article.

"Nikola Tesla." Welcome to Phils Website. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

More background/history of T. Has some parts on the Niagara falls generators I can use. Which was the partnership with Westinghouse and J. P. Morgan. But as soon as people knew what he really wanted to do, jp decided they wanted out. T wanted to transmit free electricity, and if they were doing that jp wouldn’t get any profit. Of course this was never realised but the idea alone caused it.

Klein, Andrew R. "Rural Electrification Act (1936) -" ENotes - Literature Study Guides, Lesson Plans, and More. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

REA was a great thing for farmers and other people living in rural areas. At the time this act was first made only 10% of the rural pop. had electricity but more over this act helped to get out of the great depression. In 1950 almost 90% of the rural pop. had electricity and telephone lines were then added to the act. Today it’s know as the RUS and still helps and provides electricity at a low cost to farmers.

BURNS, JOSH. "Edison vs Tesla: The War of Currents." Overcome Everything! — Business as Unusual. Overcome Everything Inc. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

Info on the strong rivalry between the two men. Explains the differences between the two types but I already have that. The good stuff is where it talks about all the conflicts between them. How they clashed with the different inventions they had or came up with. Plus, the people they did it with. What is also interesting is the world fair part but I don’t think I’ll be able to use it.

Parkinson, Dave, and Tracy Lamourie. "THE HISTORY OF THE ELECTRIC CHAIR." The Canadian Coalition Against The Death Penalty. Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty, 29 Dec. 2010. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

Specific history timeline on the electric chair with some articles (that I didn’t know until later, sadly). The timeline is very good and provides key points and dates in the evolution of the electric chair. I only saw the timeline while writing the article so that’s all I used. But it basically shows Edison’s involvement in the electric chair and how it progressed.


"Nikola Tesla's Acceptance Speech on Receiving the Edison Medal." Nikola Tesla Information Resource | Books and Online Files. AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, 18 May 1917. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

This is where Tesla is receiving the Edison medal (kind of ironic) for his working with electricity and other devices. The president of board is introducing him and naming all of the achievements. Then Tesla gives a speech while accepting it. I’ll use this to highlight some parts of the niagara plant as well as future things for different articles.

Tesla, Nikola. "My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla." Lucidcafé Interactive Café and Information Resource. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

This book is a book the Tesla himself wrote about many aspects of his life. Some parts are his inventions and other are how he grew up. It’s not that long but there are a lot of things I could use in here (didn’t read the whole thing yet). He does talk about the Electric Plant at Niagara and his dreams of being built as a young person.

Edison, Thomas A. "Electrocuting an Elephant." Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

This video shows the smear campaign that Edison used against Tesla to make people favor DC current. Edison insisted that AC current was hazardous to living things so he just electrocuted animals to prove his point. In this video he electrocuted an elephant name topsy. I can use this video to show the propaganda in the “current wars” between Tesla and Edison. Plus could be used to show how Edison felt about Tesla’s work.

"Rural Electrification Act of 1936 - Title I." U.S. Department of Agriculture. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

This is the Rural electrification Act of 1936. Helped America as a whole become one giant electric network. This helped to connect the power lines into all different cities that were previously not. It also got the rural people acoustomed to the new technology that was spreading across the nation and the world.

"Bad Elephant Killed." The Commercial Advisor, 5 Jan. 1903. Web. 15 Jan. 2012. <>.

Thee article about Topsy getting killed. Explained what happened that day and what she did to deserve it. It was a bit short but very good to have the actual article. It explains how she died and what they used/fed her to ultimately kill her.

<Franklin D. Roosevelt:"Executive Order 7037 Establishing the Rural Electrification Administration.," May 11, 1935.Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley,The American Presidency Project>

Again a good primary source depicting the exact order issued by the president. He talks about the REA (administration one) creation. What it will do and how it will be done.
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Hi SLA Community - 

There is a new art supply policy

1.  Supplies are only available to students who sign out the materials HERE

2.  Supplies my only be retrieved during X band and from 8-8:15am

I will keep replenishing the roll paper outside my room and students are welcome to pick that up at any time during the day. 

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​Chelsea Janette & Dréquan Taylor


When the project first came about to us my partner, Dréquan, and I decided to do the Revolution on sports. We wanted to see how far along sports have come and what exactly what happened with the integration of sports. Starting this project last quarter for a benchmark we just got the surface of sports and how the integration worked in sports.
By doing the NHD (National History Day) we were able to go deeper into the topic that we had choose. As the deadline came closer and closer to being done we decided to make a video that shows the three R's for sports, Revolution, Reform, and Reaction. We were able to learn about how African Americans were able to play along side caucasians and that made way for everyone else.
Doing this project we first started by getting more information on the topic. We looked onto, and for videos that could show how diverse the teams have become. Among putting our movie together we wanted a song that could put people in that game mode, so that's were the song came from. In the video we have a lot of slides that show facts as well as pictures that represent each person in the slide. Not only that but we also put in a clip to show now how African Americans and Caucasians are playing side by side. The process was a long one but at the same time it was an interesting one. We got to learn about people that no one else really knows about and we alos learned that Jackie Robinson wasn't the only one that made a change in history for sports.

Jackie Robinson. 1947. Photograph. Brooklyn. Google. Web. 6 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is a photo of Jackie Robinson in his first game in MLB(Major League Baseball). Jackie was running from 3rd base to home plate. His teammate hit the ball deep down mid-field and Jackie was running home to score. He was the fastest player on his team. This could be helpful to my project because i can use this on the website, when talking about who he was, how he broke the color line, and what he meant to the sport of baseball.

-Johnson, Jack. "Jack Johnson." Photograph and quote. 1. n. page. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>.
In this article there are pictures along with a quote that Jack Johnson had said from when he fought Jim Jeffries. In this article it also shows how Jack Johnson was the first black man “movie star.” With all the fighting he was doing he was put on television and movies so that it would be broadcast. Also this article has information on his early life and what has happened since he was born to him defeating the retired Jim Jeffries.

I’m Jack Johnson. Heavyweight champion of the world.

I’m black. They never let me forget it.

I’m black all right. I’ll never let them forget it.

Jack Johnson

Secondary Sources:

- "Today in History: April 15." The Library of Congress American Memory, 10 Mar. 2009. Web. 4 Jan. 2012. <The Library of Congress American Memory>.

This source is talking about Jackie Robinson, and how he broke the “color line”. Before Jackie Robinson there were no African-American professional players, that played along-side any Caucasians players. There was always a separation between the Caucasians and every other race. MLB (Major League Baseball) was where the Caucasians competed against each other in baseball. Jackie Robinson first competed in the Negro American League before being signed to the Brooklyn Dodgers. It will help in my project, because i can talk about how he “broke” the “color line” which was the start of a revolution. Where African-Americans played professional sports with Caucasians.

Flatter, Ron. "Johnson boxed, lived on his own." 2007: 1. Print. <>.
In this source it talks about how Jack Johnson had also had something to with breaking the color barrier. It gives a background look into the boxer’s life and how he was able to beat Jim Jeffries. Jim Jeffries had came out of retirement just to fight Jack Johnson in what went into a 15 round fight. They fought in front of 22,000 people and from that fight Johnson received $117,000. A little boy working hard on the boats and trying to make a living ended up with a heavyweight champ title.

"Racism in Hockey Happens to Often." 1. (2011): 1. Web. 6 Jan. 2012. <>.

In this article it talks about the racism that even in 2011 continues to go on after years of slavery being over. With hockey not being such an integrated sport, only 20 black men in the league, there have still been some racist acts done to these men. The fans are the ones that are showing their affection to the teammates and the article makes it clear what is going on. Not only do they say it could be about racism but they do discuss the possibilities of someone just being stupid and ignorant but as the history is being looked at it is clear that it is more than that.

Wall, Jonathan. "Video of flagrant foul no-calls at basketball game goes viral." (2012): 1. Web. 9 Jan. 2012. <>.
In this article it talks about a video that was posted on youtube and received all types of responses. The video shows how someone went up and was fouled that led into a fight. The way the problem went down made the young boy seem like he was the biggest bully in the basketball season. Also he is know known as the dirtiest player on the court at the time.

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Invasion of Kuwait
Process Paper
I picked my topic for NHD because I originally wanted to do a project on the history of the Marine Corp and my teacher told me to do my project on Kuwait since I can’t just write on the history of the Marines since it has to do with Revolution, Reaction, and Reform.  Another reason why I chose to do my project on the Invasion of Kuwait is because my brother is a Marine that went to Afghanistan on deployment and since then I’ve been interested in Afghanistan and Iraq so it was fun learning about the history of Iraq.

            I conducted my research in many different ways. At first, I typed “Invasion of Kuwait” into google and got some sites but not many. Then I used DEVONagent, a research database browser, and did more in-depth research on the Invasion of Kuwait, the Allied forces taking back Kuwait and the sanctions that the UN put on Iraq. To get the modern day information, I talked to my brother who recently went to Afghanistan and knows about the conditions over there and in Iraq and used some emails we shared while he was over there.

            To select my project format for NHD I chose what category I’m best with which is site creation. I normally make sites for my projects so I decided to do another one.

            My project related to the NHD theme of Revolution, Reaction and Reform because the Invasion of Kuwait was the reaction to many actions that occurred between Kuwait and Iraq that made Saddam Hussein invade Kuwait. The Take back of Kuwait by the UN forces was the Revolution because the Kuwaitis revolted against Saddam along with 31 other countries to end the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait. Finally, the Reform is the sanctions placed on Iraq after they were kicked out of Kuwait because to prevent the Iraqis from occupying another country, the UN placed economic sanctions that prevented Iraq from importing anything but essential needed to maintain life in Iraq into Iraq. 

Annotated Bib
-"Gulf War." Magnum Photos. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. <>. 
          -I used these pictures because they show how the Gulf War looked like when it occurred and showed me a picture of what happened in the Gulf War. They show the suffering of the Kuwaitis in the Gulf War and brings to light a true image of the war and what happened in the war. For example the burning of the oil wells in Kuwait when the Iraqis came in. I learned from these pictures the horrors of war especially in the Middle East. This is how I used the pictures from Magnum photos  to portray how Kuwait was devastated by the Iraqis.
-"Un Sanctions in Iraq." Magnum Photos. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. <>.            -I used these pictures because they let me peer into the past and how the UN sanctions affected Iraq and devastated their economy and life. I learned that the sanitation was horrible to the point that in the pictures disease struck Iraq and forced people to be put in the hospital. I used these pictures to let other people see the disease stricken Iraq and how bad they were doing when the sanctions were placed on Iraq. That is how I used the pictures from magnum Photos to let people peer into the past and see the suffering the Iraqis have faced since the sanctions were placed on them.
-Morales, Nicholas. "Afghanistan and Happy New Years." Message to Michael Morales. 03/01/2011. E-mail.
            -In this email, my family talked to my brother Nicholas who was deployed to Afghanistan and had a lot to say regarding the situation in Afghanistan and Iraq. I used this since he said how his soldiers were wounded while there and the topic I was working on was the War on Terror. Nick is a soldier in the Marine Corp who experienced many terrible things in Afghanistan and came back to us we are happy. I used this conversation to show the horrors of the War on Terror and show people that it isn’t just the Iraqis that are being hurt but the soldiers too and that it is affecting them on a mental and physical level. 
 -Morales, Tyler. "Latest from Nick." . Tyler Morales, 03/01/2011. -Web. 24 Feb 2012. <>.
             -In this document is the email I talked about before. My family talked to my brother Nicholas who was deployed to Afghanistan and had a lot to say regarding the situation in Afghanistan and Iraq. I used this since he said how his soldiers were wounded while there and the topic I was working on was the War on Terror. Nick is a soldier in the Marine Corp who experienced many terrible things in Afghanistan and came back to us we are happy. I used this conversation to show the horrors of the War on Terror and show people that it isn’t just the Iraqis that are being hurt but the soldiers too and that it is affecting them on a mental and physical level.
-"Iraq War." Magnum Photos. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. <>.
              -I used these pictures to display what it looks like in Iraq right now and the people and the soldiers are suffering and they are working tirelessly to stabilize the region of Iraq that the Taliban are hiding in and to win the trust of the Iraqi population so that they will accept that the US will protect them and that they should tell the Americans where the Taliban soldiers are hiding. I learned from them that my brother wasn’t the only one that had a hard and long journey in Iraq and Afghanistan, there were many American soldiers that had to serve in the war and these pictures commemorate those that fought in the war.
-Burgan Burning Oil Fields. N.d. Photograph. Magnum Photos
              -I used this picture because it shows soldiers in Kuwait walking down the road where at the end of the road is an oil field bringing which the Iraqis burned on their march home from Kuwait. I learned from this picture that the Iraqis are heartless until they achieve their goals, at least they were under Saddam Hussein and while they were invading Kuwait. I also learned from the faces of the American Soldiers that they are proud of what they did and are proud of their countries and would fight again if they could. That is how I used the picture of the soldiers walking down the road from a oil field being burned.
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Joe Wood

I love sports so when I got this project I knew I wanted to do it on sports but i didn't know what to do it on. So I started looking up different sports new from 20 years ago and steroids in the Olympics kept coming up so I was going to use steroids in sports and my first was going to be the Olympics.  But that was to much so i had to look for one event and I found a story about a man named Ben Johnson who was stripped of his gold medal for using steroids. Then I used baseball as my last two because there was so much to use. The first thing I used was when drugs first where banned in baseball the second was when they put drug testing in baseball.  I did a website the first thing I did was research and writing.  Then i add my writing to the website. Then I made it look all good and neat.

Primary Source

This was a video it was an interview about Ben Johnson new book.  But in the interview there where questions about him testing positive.  In the beginning of the interview he was very sorry for everything that happen and he just wanted to say that god will make everything right.  He also said he gives Andre Jackson forgiveness for what he did which is putting a banned suspends in Ben Johnson drink.  Then he us asked why after 20 years did he write the book and he said final all the information he need came out and now he can final tell what really happened.  But at the end of the video he talks about how many athlets use drugs all the time but he gets caught and that he is just a little fish in a big pool when it comes to drugs in sports
Care, Tony, dir. CBC interview. CBC , 2010. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <>. <>.

The artical I read was and interview with the old comminsner of baseball Fay Vincent.  It was about just everything that he thing baseball can do different now and about how he could of done some things different and how he would do somethings different.  So at one ponint he was asked a question on steroid testing, “(1) how do you feel management has handled the situation, and (2) how has the MLBPA handled the situation?”  His answer was “Well, I think there’s an awful lot to be done. I think it’s a good start. I think it’s significant the union reopened the contract. They improved the sanctions. I think the public pressure was enormous and Congress should stay out of it. I don’t think they can get involved and do any sophisticated good and I think they know that. Congress has threatened for 40 years to get involved in baseball antitrust issues and never has and that’s a good thing.”  The reason this is a big deal is because the only reason he sent out the memo in 1991 was because 1 year before that congress passed a law against steroids.
Brown, Maury. Internet Videoconference Interview. 09/Nov/2005.

The thing I just read was the cba or the collateve barging agreement that the mlb agreed on in 2002.  The reason I read this was because this is one of the dates I am going back to.  In it, it said that the way the testing will change is every player will be tested twice at random and if you failed the first time you had to take another one and if you failed that you where suspned for how ever many games they seen fit.

This artical was a primery source because it was and artical writen the day the news broke about Ben Johnson getting his title stripped.  It was talking about how Ben Johnson had to take a drug test right after his race becasue he broke a recored.  It took you back to the day that the news broke and the days the lead up to the news breaking.  "From the Archive: 27 September 1988: Johnson Stripped of Olympic Gold | From the Guardian | The Guardian." Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. Web. 12 Jan. 2012. <>.

Secondary Source

The article I read was a day in the shoes of Ben Johnson.  The day is the day he won the gold medal.  It was very interesting because it but you in the conversation of when Ben Johnson found out that he had tested positive for a banned suspends.  And lost his gold medal.  In it is said that Ben said he had been given a water from some one he doesn't know who but when he was drinking it there was yellow stuff on the bottom.  He said he did not do it and some one framed him.  He appealed the stripping but was turned down again.  He thought it was a joke that they where playing games with him. He still says he didn’t do anything wrong to this day.
Weinberg, Rick. "53: Johnson flunks drug test, loses gold medal." Espn. 2009: 1. Print. <>.

This is an artical about June 7 1991.  That is the date that the cominsiner of baseball sent out a seven page memo about the new rules.  The rules said "The possession, sale or use of any illegal drug or controlled substance by Major League players or personnel is strictly prohibited ... This prohibition applies to all illegal drugs ... including steroids." The reson he put this out was because the congress passed a law that said it is against the law to use steroids other if your sick.
"Baseball's Steroid Era » Steroids In MLB Timeline." Baseball's Steroid Era » Info, Lists, Quotes, Timelines, Statistics. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <>.
This artical was all about the top 10 drug scadels in sports.  The thing I looked at was the US track and Field cover up.  The thing that it said was from 1988 to 2000 there was 19 US athletes that  failed the drug test.  The thing that stood out was that American athletes talked about being against steroids for years.  It also talked about alot of other drugs in sports but i didnt read them because I didnt need it
"CBC Sports Online: Drugs and Sport: Top 10 Doping Scandals." - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. <>.

This was not and article but a fact sheet about all the differnt types of steriods. The thing I looked at was stanozolol because that is the drug that Ben Johnson took or failed the drug test on.  It told me that the reason runners use it is because allows them to recover faster and increases there strength
"Types of Prohibited Drugs." - Canadian News Sports Entertainment Kids Docs Radio TV. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. <>.

I read this and I was all about it life because it is wikipedia and there was some interesting things on there.  Like how Bens coach came out and said that all of his athletes have used steroids and that he still doesn't under stand how Johnson tested positive for what he did because Johnson didn’t like the way it made him feel after he took it.
"Ben Johnson (sprinter)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 11 Jan. 2012. <>.
            ​Website link
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Martial Law

            I picked this time for my project because first of all, I’m Filipino. Second, I live here in America and the history that is taught in class is not Philippine history. Third, people can learn about the Philippines, the country where I came from. Fourth, this is a nice way to learn about my country’s history! When Mr. Herman told us that we could pick any time and place, the first thing that popped into my head was, Philippines. I was so excited that I even pulled my friend, Longnu Nhan, to be my partner and work together. She also was interested on the Philippine history hence the reason why we just started to work together.

            The first thing that we did before picking a certain time was we searched what would be an event where there’s a huge impact and reaction in the Philippines. There’s a part with Ferdinand Magellan but we thought that was overrated so we picked the sort of recent time where there was a revolution. That is when we found the time where martial law was first declared. The good thing about it is that my parents and grandmother was around during that time.

            When Lulu and I already know what we need to work on, we started to research. Lulu looks for secondary resources and I look for primary resources. I already have a lot of primary resources because I have my mom, dad, aunt, and grandmother to interview about the martial law and Ferdinand Marcos’ regime. Then when Lulu and I finally have all of the information that we needed. We started to pick important dates and events and make our own version of martial law time line. We also added some pictures to have some visual picture on what martial law in the Philippines looks like.

            The design of our tri-fold board was a little simple; all we did was paint the Philippine flag. While doing so, we found out what was the meaning behind the colors and symbols in the flag. The three starts represents the three major geographical regions of the Philippines, which was Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The sun represents the independence and the eight rays of the run represents the eight provinces that led the Philippine uprising against the Spanish rule. The top color of the flag, which is blue, represents peace, patriotism, and justice. The bottom color of the flag, which is red, represents the valor and the blood that was split for freedom and independence.  The triangle in the flag represents equality and the Katipunan nationalist organization. While the color white of the flag represents peace and purity.

General Orders
General Order No. 1 - The President proclaimed that he shall direct the entire government, including all its agencies and instrumentalities, and exercise all powers of his office including his role as the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
General Order No. 2 – The President directed the Secretary of National Defense to arrest or cause the arrest and take into his custody the individuals named in the attached list and to hold them until otherwise so ordered by the President or by his duly designated representative, as well as to arrest or cause the arrest and take into his custody and to hold them otherwise ordered released by him or by his duly authorized representative such persons who may have committed crimes described in the Order.
General Order No.3 – The President ordered that all executive departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and instrumentalities of the National Government, government owned or controlled corporations, as well all governments of all the provinces, cities, municipalities and barrios should continue to function under their present officers and employees, until otherwise ordered by the President or by his duly designated representatives. The President further ordered that the Judiciary should continue to function in accordance with its present organization and personnel, and should try to decide in accordance with existing laws all criminal and civil cases, except certain cases enumerated in the Order.
General Order No. 4 – The President ordered that a curfew be maintained and enforced throughout the Philippines from twelve o’clock midnight until four o’clock in the morning.
General Order No. 5 – All rallies, demonstrations and other forms of group actions including strikes and picketing in vital industries such as in companies engaged in manufacture or processing as well as in production or processing of essential commodities or products for exports, and in companies engaged in banking of any kind, as well as in hospitals and in schools and colleges are prohibited.

General Order No. 6 – No person shall keep, possess or carry outside of his residence any firearm unless such person is duly authorized to keep, possess or carry any such Philippines except to those who are being sent abroad in the service of the Philippines.


December 30, 1965

Ferdinand E. Marcos became a president.

September 21, 1972

The alleged bombing attack in Enrile’s car.

September 21 1972

President Ferdinand Edralin Marcos, President of the Republic of the Philippines signed Proclamation No. 1081, placing the entire country under his firm grasp.

September 22, 1972

Proclamation No. 1081 was enforced.

January 1973

A new constitution gives Marcos absolute powers.

November 1977

Opposition leader Benigno Aquino is sentenced to death. Marcos delays the execution.

April 7, 1978

First formal election since 1969 for the regional representatives to the Interim Batasang Pambansa (the nation;s first parliament).

June 12, 1978

Ferdinand E. Marcos becomes the Prime Minister of the Philippines

March 1980

 Aquino allowed to travel to the US for medical treatment.

June 16, 1981

Marcos won his third term to be a president.

June 30, 1981

Marcos was re-elected as a president.


Marcos lifts Martial Law.

August 21, 1983

Benigno Aquino Jr. is assassinated when he leaves his plane.

February 22–25, 1986

EDSA Revolution (the fall of Marcos regime)

February 25, 1986

Corazon Aguino becomes president, ending martial law.

September 28, 1990

Military officials are convicted of the murder of Benigno Aquino.


Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) ends the guerrilla war with the government.

June 30, 1998

 Joseph Estrada elected president.

November 2000

Impeachment proceedings start against Estrada on allegations of corruption, betrayal of public trust, and violation of the constitution.

January 2001

 Impeachment trial is suspended on the 16th. There are mass street protests. The military withdraws its support. Estrada stands down on the 20th, proclaiming his innocence. His vice-president, Gloria Arroyo, is sworn in as president.

March 2001

The MILF declares a ceasefire and says it is ready to hold talks with the government.

December 12, 2004

Presidential election takes place. Arroyo's closest rival (a dear friend of Ex-President Estrada) is film actor Fernando Poe, Jr. Arroyo narrowly defeats Poe, taking 39.5% of the vote to Poe's 36.6%.


Former President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder, the first ever in the history of the Philippines.

December 4, 2009

Proclamation No. 1959, President Macapagal-Arroyo has officially placed Maguindanao province under a state of martial law.

June 30, 2010

Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino, son of Cory and Ninoy Aquino, becomes president.





I will interview my parents because they were young when former president Ferdinand Marcos signed the petition for Philippines to be placed under Martial Law. It will help me put more depth to my project because I will have someone who I can interview that experienced what was going on throughout the time. It is nice to get an opinion of a parent, since my grandmother already have my aunts and uncles’ back then when Martial Law was passed. It would be great to know what she felt about her kids and their surroundings. How it was different before and after the Martial Law.  

The gif document is basically a set of photos but it shows the different ways the people protested. It’s like a growing picture when each photo have a lot of people in it with their arms linked together or have huge banners with red tinted inks with slogans written allover it. Instead oh having a whole bunch of picture, I can use the gif to at least minimize the picture usage. It’s old picture too so its kind of hard to see but even then, you can still see the people around. This will help me with my project because it’s showing different rallies that was going during Martial Law.

I will interview my parents because they also have experience things about the Martial Law. Even though they were little back then and do not really know what was going on, their opinion still matters because different people have different views and perspective about the issue. It’s nice to know how their opinions developed once they started to figure out what was happening and how they reacted to the things that are going on around them. For short, its like seeing things from their perspective (in a kid vision) and how it changed when they grew older and learned things in school that they didn’t understand before.


EDSA People Power at 25th Anniversary
This resource was from a person who had some sort of experience with the revolution. For the past 25 years, Philippines became the big man. What do I mean by that? Well, they were able to break their silence and fight for their rights. They were able to create businesses without having to worry about the government taking it away form them. And most importantly, they were able to express their opinions. This source talks about how they Philippines improved since the day of their revolution. Not only did it affect their own country, but it also affected other countries. For example, Russia went from being a communism government to a democratic government. All in all, 25 years ago, the Philippines gave hope for themselves and others.

Milestones after EDSA 1
This resource gave me a list of things that shaped the Philippines today. Within 25 year, a lot of different and important events happened. In 1987, congress reopen and it allowed the Filipinos to vote for a leader who can represent them and be the leader of their government. As time goes by, the American Military bases were in the Philippines but that didn't last that long because there was an eruption of Mount Pinatubo, which cause it to end in 1947. Technology was a huge help for the Philippines because without that, they wouldn't be able to update the world with what was going on in their country. This source taught me how all the events that happened in the last 25 years can still have an impact on others today.

The Philippines After:
This was one of the best resources that I had. I think someone did this as his or her project. I was mainly on this source because it legit had every single details of this revolution and it was so easy to understand. It had videos, a timeline, pictures, and many more. I’m more of a visual person so I was able to understand it more clearer.It mentioned about another revolution that happened on January 20, 2001. It seems like the Philippines is the master of having a revolution without any violence. A few months later, Gloria Macapagal Arroya became president and she was prepared for it. She then fought against the Arroyo administration because they wanted her to step down but she didn't want to. She continue to fight them until August 1, 2009, which then led to her death.
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My fav. stuff

​What I did was russian revolution!
Process Paper: 

Choosing a topic is a very important part of any one project. I however, already had an idea of a research in mind, before I even learned about NHD. One of my old history teachers from Russia (that I still am in contact) was making fun of me, because I did not know the basics of my own country’s history. At that point in time, I had decided to pick an event, and find out about it, as much as I can. I picked up a book that was written by Leo Trotski about 1917 democratic and communist revolutions. Little did I knew, that on the next day, my history teacher was going to tell us about the NHD.

            My research started from the book that was mentioned above. I wanted to educate myself about that time period, and so within that week, I almost finished the first half of that book. After my teacher told me about this project, I decided to stop at the point that I had gotten to, and look for specifics about events online. I was searching throughout the internet for websites and diaries that could explain me, what drove people to come out to the streets, forsake their very lives, and fight for what they believed was equality. People like that deserve to be praised, and not squished into one event by a powerful compressor which is history.

            The category selection was the hardest thing to choose for me. I was unsure of what my biggest strength is, but in the end I choose a website, because in it, I had the opportunity to express my opinion on paper, and also support it with as many claims as are needed. While a research paper would have a similar concept, I felt a lot more comfortable with actually having an opportunity to have a website that is a bit more interactive than a paper can possibly be.

            When I was doing a project, I had a very important choice to make. I could have choose one particular revolution, and while concentrating on that, I would be able to explain everything in a lot more details, however I felt that it would not be as strong of a project. I decided to combine 3 revolutions, and I am claiming that the true change in them was not as simple as the cosmetic change from one government to the other. I decided to attempt to show that the way people behaved changed, and while their reasons were the same, and all of the reforms were simply cosmetic, throughout those 3 events, the true reform occurred inside of everybody who was inspired to go out, and sacrifice his own life for what he believed. My website <3 ty <3


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Achalfen NHD

Process Paper


I started this project unknowing to the amount of interest I would find myself having, and the amount of desire I craved for information. As my research broadened I began to discover facts that went beyond basketball. Characteristics of humanity, that shocked and appalled me. The basketball fan in me enjoyed seeing the past and how our future has evolved so much. It is extremely interesting to compare someone like Earl Lloyd to a modern day player such as Kobe Bryant. The contrast is evident but considering the amount of time that has passed since these two first put on their jerseys it is understandable. What is really interesting are the similarities. Players like Kobe and Jordan dominated their era, era’s with constant media coverage. Earl dominated his era but with much less publicity so he gets much less credit then he deserves. Moving past basketball I saw the effects of social movements and integration happen around Earls career. He directly affect the way people perceived African Americans in a very tense time. His demeanor and professionalism on and off the court are beyond admirable and his play speaks for itself. After reflecting on this project I have found how interested I am in the past of basketball. The great players who didn’t get a chance to have their name imprinted in every media clip of the decade. Without Earl Lloyd basketball could have had its first African American player be a sham and ruin the credibility of all African Americans simply based off the enormous stereotyping pressure that was put on whoever first integrated the NBA. The world changed because of him and we still feel the impacts today. How many kids were inspired by the famous dunks of Michael Jordan? or the Showtime glamour of Magic Johnson and his Lakers? Athletes are treated as role models and idols in today’s society and the integration of the NBA was a crucial turning point in the public’s ongoing battle against segregation. Earl Lloyd exemplified courage on this day and should be recognized as not only a great player but also a great icon of humanity and equality. As I complete this project I will remember everything I learned not only about Earl Lloyd but about what interesting facts can be revealed just by starting to look in the right places at the right times.

Annotated Bibliography

-Merlino, Doug. "Interview With Earl Lloyd." Stories worth Telling. Doug Merlino, 16 Apr. 2011. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. <>.
This source is an interview with Earl Lloyd the first player to integrate the NBA. A journalist interviews him and asks him questions about his experience as an icon and a pioneer while still remaining focused on playing basketball. I will include quotes and opinion's from this interview to deepen my Tumblr.

-"Earl Lloyd Becomes First Black Player in the NBA — This Day in History — 10/31/1950." — History Made Every Day — American & World History. A&E Television Networks. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is from history channel and is considered to be the most important event of October 31 1950. It highlights headlines, and shows the reaction of the public. History channel outlines the most important events throughout history so to make its list shows how important this event was. I will use pictures and key dates from this source.

-Bailey, Ashley. "Integration and the Birth of the NBA." Online 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is an article written to to express opinion's of the event. When the NBA integrated a’lot of people were surprised but not hostile however that doesn't mean it was easy to be the first African American player, this article expresses that well. I will use the authors opinion's as a support for my own opinion's.

"First African-American NBA Players - Hoopedia." Main Page - Hoopedia. Hoopedia/ Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <>.
This source focuses less on the integration aspect of Earl Lloyd and more on how he played. It gives statistics and analysis of his impressive career as an NBA player but does mention his unique situation. I will use this to show how black players thrived in the NBA and how that resulted in the NBA being primarily black now.

Clifton, Nathaniel. "Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton Biography." Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is the bibleography of the second professional African American basketball player he speaks alot about how Earl Lloyd helped him in his way but also how he helped Earl Lloyd because they both signed contacts with in months of each other. I will use this to show the support of that era for integration not just in sports but in everything.

-"Our New Black Fives Photo Archive | Black Fives." Home | Black Fives. Black Fives, 3 Feb. 2011. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.
This source provides a gallery of pictures that are all useful to show how in older times not only did african american players look different but all players did. Sports have changed over time and pictures are hard to find from the oldest times so this source gives me visual help.

-Hawkins, Michael. "Basketball Pioneer Earl Lloyd." West Virginia Division of Culture and History. WV. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.
This article is about how Earl Lloyd was a pioneer for basketball and did something that should always be remembered. I will use this source to show how a pioneer is a unique spectacle and show what type of group Earl Lloyd is in.

Bonocorsi, John. "Integration of the NBA." Upload & Share PowerPoint Presentations and Documents. SlideShare, 28 May 2007. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is a PowerPoint presentation on the history of integration is all sports not just basketball. With this i can compare and contrast basketballs integration with other sports and see how they interacted/ affected each other.

Spencer, Adam. "Top 25: Black History's Integration of Pro Basketball - NBA - Yahoo! Sports." Yahoo! Sports - Sports News, Scores, Rumors, Fantasy Games, and More., 26 Feb. 2011. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is an article highlighting 25 important moments in the full integration of the NBA. Ive focused my articles specifically on the first black players however this shares information on all the events before and after the signing of Earl Lloyd.

Wormser, Richard. "The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow . Jim Crow Stories . Jackie Robinson Integrates Baseball | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. PBS. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is an article specifically on Jackie Robinson, and his journey into the pro’s and what he meant to all sports. Jackie was an inspiration for Earl Lloyd. So I can use this to add information on why Jackie was an inspiration for Earl Lloyd.
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Hip Hop Revolution

Music is an omnipresent influence in human history as well as one of the most important parts of my life. From the beginning of this assignment, I knew that I wanted to do something related to music history. I was inspired for this topic by an article I read online about the Arab Spring and the revolutions in Libya. The idea that hip hop, which has become such an enormous part of the entertainment industry in America, could play an integral part in a revolution overseas. Instead of existing simply as a flashy, lucrative business, hip-hop was being used as a tool to allow oppressed people to speak out against their government. I had done a small amount of research on the history of hip hop in the Bronx for my English class a few weeks earlier, and I noticed that the two revolutions began in a very similar manner.


To gather information about my topic, I used online search engines. The sources that I looked for were interviews with hip hop artists and other figureheads from important time periods, timelines that included specific dates of important events, and information about the music behind the lyrics of hip hop. I also watched two documentaries: Style Wars, about the graffiti uprising, and The Black Power Mixtape. I incorporated my information into three fictional news articles, each of which illustrated an important time period in the development of hip hop history.


To construct my project, I used information from my three news articles to create an interactive timeline. I then selected the photographs that I felt would best fit my project and printed out subtitles for these pictures. I chose not to divide the board into sections, so that it would look less like a set timeline. I added a short synopsis that I had previously written to the top of the board.


The hip-hop culture was a revolution in New York. Fueled by a new, expressive kind of music, the young citizens of the Bronx made their way into the streets. From street to street and corner to corner, Bronx youth danced, rhymed, and spray-painted to express their self-chosen identities. To the outside world, they were just another group of kids who were making trouble. Believing that such behavior would only lead to more crime, the police cracked down and enforced strict policies. In the meantime, hip-hop music was becoming a powerful force in the record industry. As it became more and more popularized through film and commercial music, hip-hop’s lyrics began to become more streamlined. Eventually, hip-hop evolved into the form of entertainment that it is today. However, this cycle of revolution, reaction, and reform has begun all over again in the Middle East.




"The Mish B3eed Mixtape." Enough Gaddafi. Enough Gaddafi, n. d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <>.
This is the official website for the anti-Gaddafi movement in Libya. It contains blog posts with updates from various resistance movements and, more importantly, the official mixtape compiled by Libyan hip hop artists that is fueling the movements.

Ehrlich, Dimitri, and Gregor Ehrlich. "Graffiti in its Own Words." New York Magazine. 25 Jan 2006: n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is a compilation of interviews with 70’s graffiti artists, who give their opinions on and share memories from hip hop’s early days. They cover topics ranging from turf wars to police response to the graffiti artists. 

Durat, Abdulla, perf. "Hip-Hop for Revolution." WPRI's The World. WPRI, 08/02/2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. <>.
This source contains direct quotes and excerpts from songs from the aforementioned mixtape. These lyrics are interesting because they resemble the lyrics from the early hip hop movement in America, and express the same sentiments. This will be one of the central  points of my project.

Joe Conzo. Afrika Bambaataa. 1981. Photograph. Cornell University, New York City. Web. Jan 2, 2011.
This is a photograph of one of the creators of hip hop, Afrika Bambaataa. I will use this picture in one of my primary source articles for the project. 

Public Enemy. “Fight the Power”. Fear of a Black Planet. Def Jam Recordings. 1990. <>.
It is important to cite a sample of lyrics in my project. I chose this song because the verses effectively explain the connection between music and the hip hop movement. This is valuable because it comes from the end of the 80’s, during a time when the hip hop movement was widespread. I have some apprehensions about this source because the song was released by the Def Jam company which, by this time, was no longer an underground record label. An important part of my NHD project will be to discuss the eventual commercialization of the hip hop culture, and this could be a good starting point. 



Lott, Joanna. "Keepers of History." Penn State Featured Articles. Penn State University, 8 May 2002. Web. 23 Feb 2012. <>.
This is an article about the African griot tradition. I used the information in this article for the "The Roots" section. This was important to my project because it allowed me to further explain where the style of music on which hip hop is based came from.

"Style Wars." PBS: KAC, Philadelphia, 1983. Radio. 6 Oct 2011. <>.
This is a documentary about graffiti, one of the four facets of the early hip hop culture in New York. It gives details about the young people who were being influenced by early hip hop music, and how it manifested itself in their culture. What’s interesting about this documentary is that it was made in the early 80’s, and contains many video clips and interviews from people who lived during the time that this culture began to form. In this way, it contains many primary sources as well as being a secondary source itself.

Durat, Abdulla, perf. "Hip-Hop for Revolution." WPRI's The World. WPRI, 08/02/2011. Web. 6 Oct 2011. <>.
To make my project more relevant to modern issues, I will discuss the ways in which hip hop is affecting the revolution in Libya. This article includes interviews with Libyan civilians who have been affected by the music, as well as lyrics from some of the songs. I am also including this in the Primary Source section because of the lyric excerpts. 

Williams, S. "Hip-Hop Timeline 1970-1989." Digital Dream Door. n.d. n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <>.
This is a timeline that includes important events in the formation of hip hop and key moments in the history of hip hop culture. Because the project is structured like a news article, a list of specific events is a valuable resource. 

Ehrlich, Dimitri, and Gregor Ehrlich. "Graffiti in its Own Words." New York Magazine. 25 Jan 2006: n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <>.
This source is valuable mainly because of its credibility. The first page is a summary of the events of the graffiti trend of the late 70’s to 80’s. It provides information about the beginnings of graffiti, as well as some very interesting details about the eventual “war” declared on graffiti by the mayor of New York. I have also included this source in the Primary Source section because the other pages are interviews with graffiti artists.

"Breakdancing." NPR. 14 Oct 2002: n. page. Web. 2 Jan. 2012. <>.
This source discusses the effect that “breakdancing” had on the urban communities in New York. The most interesting details are the descriptions of how gang members would settle their arguments with dance contests, in which the dance moves symbolized fighting moves.











Miscellaneous Pictures


DJ Hollywood


Rudy Giuliani,r:9,s:0&tx=47&ty=26


DJ Kool Herc*IqFlTQapMLBc8j00SGWXnWOfvTXQg8kPUwh2WaZ-Rh2ZC3bnpZ68NnBJ5eKTqS6fss5Cce*/djkoolhercold.jpg&w=600&h=600&ei=iERGT_fCDKLg0QHLhpH6DQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=454&sig=100409285614428641966&page=1&tbnh=113&tbnw=126&start=0&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0&tx=100&ty=51


Mish B3eed,r:1,s:0


Four elements*RzdJC1683xrr6k4XPr8jF-RbsyDdXiankN0N2xqDphtCCsMz4TcQb73qLPy/HipHopElementsSkribe.jpg&w=664&h=675&ei=DkZGT9SeLef30gHx96iJDg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=855&vpy=235&dur=1957&hovh=226&hovw=223&tx=135&ty=173&sig=100409285614428641966&page=1&tbnh=114&tbnw=112&start=0&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:22,s:0


Grandmaster Flash




The Message,r:1,s:0




subway graffiti,r:5,s:19&tx=87&ty=109

Griot 1,r:1,s:0&tx=107&ty=89


Griot Cover,r:4,s:0






Wild Style,r:2,s:0
















Def Jam,r:1,s:0&tx=111&ty=39




raising hell,r:1,s:0



DSCN0169 (1)
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​My script 

It’s something so beautiful about tragedy, about hearts breaking into terroristic hands. There is a story lying beneath the ashes, the body, Someone’s soul died inside of that building,

He was a husband, a son, a

father and Pinochet took his titles away from him.

Who gave him the right to play god?

No one spoke of it in Chile; my people are losing all hope for something greater than them, an idea that can change how their kids and grand children will view their heritage and country,

I never want them to be ashamed of where they come from,

The mesh of tracery and triumph that shifted the way the world looked at us.

I think we are allowing outside forces and Pinochet to destroy us because we depend on the idea of liberation from all of the horrible things in the world,

We fell for his tactics,

We allowed him to twist our thoughts and bullets through our skulls,

How many lives will be lost lessoning the chance of ever gaining happiness.

I was told the United States decided to help wreck my homeland and leader because they felt it was necessary to force the American dream through our soil that my parents grew crops on to feed us,

They never put food on the table for us they just stripped us of everything we owned

Allende was found with bullet wounds and our future, all we ask is why wasn’t there any say of the people?

Just the United States and Pinochet opinions on how we should live

Oh the glorious wonders of destruction,

On September 29, 2003

 It was revealed that the United States government helped create a monster.

We worked so hard for a revolution it was disregarded because the peoples weren’t good enough for a vote or valid explanation. “Voting boxes are like suggestions not everything inside matter”

My process
The world is so much greater than the United states, as a citizen here I tend to forget that Americans often exaggerate our circumstances and not look at the horrible things and triumphs that happen in other countries. I chose Chile because I usually focus on Puerto Rico because that is apart of my heritage. Spanish is the language that bonds us all together as Latinos, so I knew I wanted to focus on something close to home but far enough to learn something. I asked a friend of mine who is from Peru if she knew any interesting topics that involved the United States as well as a Latino country, “The First 9/11” is what she suggested.  Once I started researching the topic I became very interested and looked all over for resources.

When I started the assignment I looked through the textbook my friend had from her history of Spanish class. I didn’t really find any useful information in that book. I then searched the term “the first 9/11” once I searched that into Google so many resources came up from the past as well as recent findings such as the United States involvement in the coup that was formed against Allende.
I am choosing to do a spoken word performance. I have been doing performance poetry for three years, I never did a character piece or historical. I hope that it will improve my writing style and performance. I am interested in what I come up with for the actual acting aspect of it.
The revolution in my topic was the government trying to develop itself from extreme opposites, which was socialism to democracy. The reaction can be from the perspective of the people who participated in the coup that Pinochet conducted or the reaction from people who were supporters of Allende. The reform was the people taking control on how they wanted their lives to be lead, they tried to rebuild their government and get Pinochet out of power because essentially he was a dictator.

CIA Acknowledges Ties to Pinochet’s Repression.” The National Security Archive. Chile Documentation Project, n.d. Web. <>.
In this article the source was given to the Public on September 20, 2000. The event chosen to use in this project happened in 1973. The Chile revolution had a lot of missing pieces; the government in the United States as well as the Chile government was very oblivious to the outside involvement. The United States congress demanded that the CIA tell the role that they played during the 1970’s era covert. The CIA developed a relationship with the Chile intelligence agency, which was known as one of the country’s worst humans rights abusers. The CIA also gave him a deposit of cash. Using this source with help with the understanding on why the people was so confused and wanted to over throw their government so badly. A lot of things were not told to the public of both the United States as well as Chile, America claims helping the way known abuser was a miscommunication.

Smitha, Frank E. "Chile, to the Overthrow of Allende in 1973." MacroHistory : World History. 2000. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>.
Throughout this article there was a lot of talk about money. The money came from the United States in order to influence the elections. In the beginning Chile had a democracy but then turned into a dictatorship. Chile was a small place the presidents each ran 6 years for their term. Chile wasn’t known for having any problems with having stability within its politics. In the 1950’s the cities began to increase in population and in size. The United States encouraged Chile to make changes within the government because the United States had an alliance for reform with them. Since the United States wanted to keep the democracy they gave money to the government, which knocked the communist elective out of the race the votes said he was winning by 100,000. Allende was that leader at the time, in Chile a person is not supposed to run for two elections and or terms he had told the public he was now standing for a republic and working class. This source gives an understanding on how the elections were run and what the people actually wanted. Also it gives a better understanding because it is a primary source so it is in terms that are easy to understand.

"On This Day September 11, 1973 « Formae Mentis NGO™." Formae Mentis NGO™. Formae Mentis NGO™, 2001. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>.

In this picture it is the presidential palace bombed by the Chile military. The reason for the bombing was to kill the leader because the CIA said that was the only option. I would use this as one of my blog post. I would be writing as one of the citizens that are confused but have a little bit more understanding as to why things are happening and the involvement many of the Chile and US people have. I would tell the story of the picture as if I was there at that moment watching those things happen. I would post questions like what happened to the general of 17 years during this attack on Allende. Because the general was against the plan to attack the general the CIA killed him. The way I would use the picture is a visual framework on the extreme actions the people of the coup took.

"Strange Defeat: The Chilean Revolution, 1973." Ed. Mike Harman. Pointblank, 1973. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>.
I will use this source to help me have an idea on what my paper should look like and how I should deliver it since it was written during that time from the view point of a political official, I am going to try to take the role of a citizen and try to make it make sense so the reader would understand because in all of the articles I read from that time even now I still did not fully grasp what happened exactly. So I will rewrite that point of view being as accurate as possible.

Ackerman, Peter. "CHILE - DEFEAT OF A DICTATOR." A Force More Powerful. 2000. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>.
I would use this picture of General Augusto Pinochet and give a description of who he is and the role he played in the defeat of the government. I think I would try to create a story to try and give a perspective of what he said and how the nation felt during this time. I think I will create a story using factual information but put myself in the mindset of a person who was affected by the general the most and the outside involvement of the CIA. This picture could be someones nightmare or dream come true I don’t know which role I would play yet,

Allende, Overthrowing. "Cold War Killer File: Augusto Pinochet « The Red Phoenix."The Red Phoenix. American Party of Labor. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>.
This source is the third picture given on the site. The picture is a protest for Allende, The average person in Chile appreciated and agreed with his methods. The protest is going to be used as me taking the picture and explaining what is going on and why the people agree or disagree with the protest. Also if the protest sparked the invasion on the palace. The picture shows one of the actions taken to begin the over riding of the government. I am going to use this picture as a way to clarify what events occurred and how it effected the people. I am going to find similar pictures and analyze all of them and make a slide show to give the full story for the situation.

"Untitled Document." The Beacon School, NYC. 2008. Web. 08 Jan. 2012. <>
In the source it is a overview of what happened in the Chile revolution it is a middle school and or high school lesson for kids to understand. The source has many questions that would help me grasp what my audience would need to know while I am presenting or while looking at my blog. Also the source has a lot of pictures that I could not find on google images or any of my other sources I found a news

"Death of a Dictator: Victims of Augusto Pinochet's Reign Remember Brutal Regime From the Caravan of Death to Operation Condor." A Daily TV/radio News Program, Hosted by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, Airing on over 900 Stations, Pioneering the Largest Community Media Collaboration in the United States. Web. 11 Dec. 2006. <>.
I am going to use this site to show how many people the General killed during his rein in terror after him and his men overthrown the government. The article is specific on exactly what he did during his time in power also it tell us when exactly he died. He died when he was 91 and did a lot of bad things. He transformed the entire government and no one overthrown in. Also the source has quotes from Allende daughter and other family members and there reaction to the generals death. I think that by looking at those quotes I can get into their heads and comment on that for my blog. I can use it to show the effects of her fathers death to an advantage. I think that this source is very beneficial because I’m sure the way she felt about the general remains the same even after all of these years.
“Sometimes democracy must be bathed in blood.” – Augusto Pinochet
I am going to use this source and quote to show what his mind state was from the beginning. He wanted to show democracy in a bad way. I am going to use this as if I was watching tv and this is what was being said and my reaction to it and the peoples reaction. I think that if i was a supporter of Allende I would lose hope a little bit. This source also has pictures of the general and Allende when he gave his fair well speech. This source has a lot of primary sources.

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Never Again, Group Exhibit

At first our group was going to investigate the different stories of the holocaust and what exactly triggered it and who had known about the holocaust. Then we had all talked and out and agreed that the holocaust was too much of commercial topic, so we focused on genocide, which is less of a commercial topic. Choosing just one genocide was hard for us to do, so oat first we had did research on the different types of genocides that there were. At the end we had all agreed that it was best for us all to do different parts of different genocides and to put them all together in one informational project that would practically sum up everything that a genocide was about and the people who have already lived through one. 

To just simply Google genocide isn’t enough to understand everything that you need to know to illustrate and to do the perfect genocide project. We had to work really hard at exactly what we were looking for. We had looked for plenty of survivor stories to get head on to what exactly had happened and what it felt like. Also we had did little secondary research just to get the basics of everything that had happened and also everything that the media might have known about. Generally our research periods were very long and hard; also we took specific facts from each source that was used. Then after all of the research on the major things like background information and up close facts on what had happen in each genocide that was researched we had to research the little things such as pictures and videos. 

For our presentation category we wanted to go out and above. We chose to do a presentation board because visuals are everything. Also we had wanted it to look really ragged and old, as if it was something that we had literally taken from a history book. Going through the creation process was just as long as doing the research to start the project. First we had to get a board then make sure that we had decorated it according to occasion. We didn’t want our board to be really boring and something someone had seen before. Also we wanted our project to stick out like a sore thumb so we used our best of might to add things to it and to add little details to everything so everything looked tattered and like it belonged to someone who was in the genocide. 

Our project relates to the national history day theme of reaction, reform, and revolution because we show different sides of the genocide. Also we take different types of genocides and put them into one total and complete project, which brings them all together in the never again convention that is also in our project for revolution. All together our project shows that there is always a reaction to a situation that follows with an reform and usually a revolution. 

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America VS Mary Jane

Marley Utzig &+ Chelsea Ann Smith​
NHD Project, Q3BM.
Fire Stream

Annotated Bib:

Louis, Gasnier, dir. Reefer Madness. 1936. Film.
Reefer Madness was a movie put out in 1936. The movie shows the ill effects of marijuana, as an anti marijuana propaganda. The characters are drug dealers through out the movie they are smoking and other characters are smoking. The characters becoming violent including running over people with a car, the characters also change their entire personality, full blown hallucinations like would be seen from taking LSD, and shooting people. The movie ends with the characters dead or insane from smoking marijuana. The last scene is much like a PSA announcement. This movie is a prime example of what people during this time thought about marijuana.

Teen Drug Use PSA. Film. <>.
PSA about teens doing drugs from the 1960’s. It is a short 8 minute video about taking drugs and popping pills “why” the students do them and eventually why marijuana is a gate way drug and what it does to you. The PSA talks about how the kids slowly take more and more drugs because they either become addicted or think they can handle the drugs. This video shows the basic stuff that kids are influenced by other kids and that if done once it will be done again so the kids do stuff to be cool or “groovy”. Bad kids influence good kids to take drugs because they also take drugs or they are drug dealers. The video talks about students being “square” which is bad, the main boy in the video drinks to much at a party and ends up doing drugs because he is not thinking.

N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan 2012. < j. anslinger>.
These are quotes from Harry J. Anslinger. He was the head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. With him at the lead they began to arrest people for using drugs. They had little money though to pay for what they needed to do so Harry created a PSA and fought drugs by using scare tactics and alerting the public how dangerous this new drug was and why people should not do it. These quotes are only a few of the racist slurs and lies he has told. He discredited research done on the drug that went against his PSA’s and made sure the world was to afraid to even smoke the drug believing that they would become violent.

"Gore Files." Reefer Madness video. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <
One of Harry J. Anslinger’s Anti-drug propaganda was called the Gore File. In his Gore File stories are told about people on marijuana who have done horrible acts generally rape and murder. Many children and people under the influence of marijuana are said to of stabbed people while under the influence of marijuana. There are also bits about people selling marijuna while not as scary as thinking about someone stabbing you while high this was still effective for parents because this meant anyone could be selling drugs to their children. The quotes are from newspapers with short blurbs of what happened while said person did what they did on marijuana. In fact many people tried to claim insanity because they were on marijuana. the first ten are ture the rest are myths but at the time were considered true at least so said the PSA’s and Gore Files.

Nixon announces war on drugs. News, Film. <>.
June 17, 1972 Nixon announces the War on Drugs. He explains that he will be upping the funding that is going to the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and taking down drugs because in his opinion Drugs are public enemy number one. This is a short video but apparently Nixon wanted to crack down on laws but the only one that was a full federal law was the war on drugs so he took to it. This became his presidential “thing”, he was going to take down drugs and drug users, the people who push drugs and the ones who are corrupted by them. Other presidents have backed the war on drugs but Nixon started it.

Mann, Ron, dir. Grass: History of marijuana. 1999. Film

This is a documentary about the history of marijuana. In the documentary multiple PSA’s and other scare tactics from the government are shown. The film shows both sides of the history, the whole story with facts and historical references. It talks about how the Mexicans from across the border brought the weed into the states. They say that a Mexican who was high went crazy and killed a bunch of people so the El Paso Ordinance 1914. Harry J. Anslinger is introduced as taking down drugs. The whole movie is filled with primary sources mostly videos and pictures from different times. The anti drugs campaign seems to be the one with the most PSA’s.

Rudgley, Richard. "Cannabis." Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Substances. Little, Brown and Company, 1998. Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

This source also talks about how the drug was originally grown in one certain location because of the environment it needed, thinking maybe around Central Asia and around Afghanistan area. It isn’t certain because of how widely it has spread and how fast it happened too. This site is also very useful because it talks about the plant and what type it is, for example it is a dioecious plant meaning it can have either the male or the female reproduction system. For cannabis the female systems produce the best. Cannabis was also present during the time of the Silk Road and was commonly traded. Many smoked it because it was believed that it helped release one from their anxiety, which is still a common belief.

"Mexican Weed of Madness." Miami News 25 June 1914, n. pag. Web. 5 Jan. 2012. <,3549925&dq=marihuana insane&hl=en>.

This newspaper article is from 1914 and talks about the crazy outbreaks smoking marijuana causes a person to have. It highlights one story about one guy that smoked marijuana and then killed a cop and badly injured three other men. He stated that he was crazy and he was put in a strait jacket. They also talk about how smoking marijuana causes a person to lose their mind and they will never became to recover it again after that. The article raised the issue of soldiers in camps smoking marijuana and how it had to be smuggled and was illegal, smoking it caused a headache at first and then caused hallucinations involving seeing things that weren’t there. This newspaper article is helpful because it shows the thought people believed about weed and shows the causes that later down the road helped make marijuana illegal in the United States and Mexico.


Guither, Pete . "Why is Marijuana Illegal? ." Drug WarRant . WordPress , n.d. Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

This source talks about why exactly marijuana is illegal today and what caused it to get that way. For example it has a lot to do with racism, greed and companies profits, which isn’t what most people think. Most people get the idea that just because its illegal it means it’s bad, which the site also talks about, the level of ignorance. The site also talks about the basic history of marijuana and how it has been legal for most of its usage time, it has only been illegal for 1% of the time the plant has been in use. The site also has a section on the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 which is important because it is obviously not enforced today and there is also a section about the relations that involved the Mexicans and also a section that talks about the prohibition laws in place. This helps learn the facts and how they have changed with the fact that make up the background to give us a good base of understanding.

"Hemp History ." . Hemp House Paia, 1998 . Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

This source is very important because it helps give a good idea of how things involving marijuana started to become more popular and how things exactly started to spread. This mainly outlines the use of hemp and when people started to learn new ways to use it. This site is a timeline that dates as far back as 8000 BC and goes all the way up unto 1998. This gives a basic idea and helps us be able to map things and understand the large issue and concept of this ongoing problem. The timeline includes facts and events from anything like someone eating a seed to help them stay alive to the word hempe being listed in the dictionary to when it became legal to have hemp farms and to mass grow.

"Marijuana Timeline ." BUSTED America's War on Marijuana. PBS, n.d. Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

The time line starts in the 1600’s talking about the growing of marijuana for hemp up to the 1890s. The 1920’s are when things become interesting as Mexicans who have crossed the border bring over Marijuana as a recreational drug. In the 1930’s drugs are making a rise in America and the fear is rising so in an effort to fight the new drugs the Federal Bureau of Narcotics is created.  The timeline talks about different PSA’s. There is an interesting tidbit from World War two where a program “Hemp For Hope” is program where people will grow hemp so that there is more rope and cloth for the war.

"Ancient Cannabis: Uncovering a 2,700-Year-Old Stash." Discovery News . Discovery Communications, n.d. Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

This source shows pictures with captions and little explanations of the Yanghai Tombs from over 2,700 years ago that contained marijuana in them. The tombs also contained other produces made from hemp. The site also has pictures of seeds and leafs of this 2,700 year old marijuana. This site helps show how far back marijuana could possibly go. The Yanghai people could have been the first people to have marijuana and use it in its many ways or maybe they weren’t. Its not certain if they smoked it or where it was grown or if they even were the ones that put it in the tombs, but it does answer some questions while it raised many more unanswerable questions.

Viegas, Jennifer. "Oldest Marijuana Stash Found ."Discovery News . Discovery Communications, 03 Dec 2008. Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

This source continues to talk about the Yanghai Tombs in much more detail. They used the hemp to make clothes and ropes. The site proves that the Yanghai people did indeed smoke the marijuana, but in the tomb and from what we know about the civilization it is unknown how exactly they smoked it. From inspecting it is known that marijuana is a complicated plant and took brains to create. The stuff they smoked was very similar to what we have today but if the stuff that was found was smoked there would be no effect because of the decomposition of the main chemicals including THC. This cite helps me to further understand the oldest dated back marijuana in detail.

"A Brief History of Cannabis ." The UK Cannabis Internet Activist. UKCIA Culture Section, n.d. Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

This source is useful to my project because it talks about how early traditions started, like people sitting around in a circle smoking and meeting in groups of people. Also as far back as 2737 BC marijuana has been used as a medicine, maybe even farther back.  Also the drug was referenced in Homer which helps date it back even more. The site also talked about how it was used as a punishment in an early form, people were made to smoke it until they passed out if they committed a misdeed, but on the flip side it was also encouraged to smoke because it gave lots of energy and made people work better. This site also proves as early as 1378 there were people that wanted cannabis destroyed, it worked but then eventually came back, which happens many more times in history and even to the present day.

Zimmer, Lynn. "Marijuana." Legalize Marijuana . N.p., 21 Oct 2007. Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.

This source is useful because it talks about where the natural habit of marijuana and where it originated from. Cannabis homeland is just north of India and many of the early civilizations had to travel through that area on their way to settling and traveling to find and conquer new land. At this time is when most people found and picked on cannabis. This is most likely the reason that the plant spread so much and is now present and easily found everywhere. Early on the plant was referred to as the Mother of Agricultural Civilization because it had many helpful uses such as making ropes and fabric, medical uses and it contains vitamin B and protein. The writer of this cite is both a former user and a researcher who strongly feels that marijuana should be legal and talks about the many positive things that the plant and drug can be used and was used for. It is also mentioned that the use of the drug causes hallucinations and at a certain balance it can be good and that is what is believed to have started the ideas of many world religions today.

"Interviews ." BUSTED America's War on Marijuana. PBS , 1998 . Web. 2 Jan 2012. <>.
These are interviews from a PBS documentary called “Busted - America’s War on Marijuana”. Each man interviewed is from a different field of work. The men are on different sides of the issue. Some are fighting for the legalization of marijuana and because they are professionals in their field they are able to give good sturdy reasons and data to support their ideas. Reading the interviews gives you two strong sides of an argument. The men’s professions, which range from Teachers to Police officers, really add to the knowledge and give you different perspectives of marijuana besides just a full on supporter of marijuana or a person who is totally against it.

"Cannabis (drug)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 Dec. 2012. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <>.
This is a Wikipedia article about Cannabis. This is a good page for the basic information on marijuana and is not biased stating only the facts of what is going on in this history and current affairs of marijuana. The Wikipedia page also talks about the chemicals in marijuana and their effects that make up marijuana as a drug. It is important to know this stuff because not many people think about the types of stuff marijuana is made of like THC and what it does to you exactly. This page gives all the basics about the classifications and different types of marijuana.

"Cal Biz Lit." : Just Say No! To Headless Class Actions. Cal Biz Lit, 28 Apr. 2011. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <>.
This article is about employers not accepting employees who have a prison record. The important part of the article is that a majority of the people who had a prison record had it because of marijuana related crimes. The people then sued Starbucks but it did not really workout in the end. We really only used this source for the outline of the marijuana pot leaf for our board but the story is interesting. It makes sense that the people were not allowed to work for Starbucks because of past crimes. There is a law though that excludes marijuana from this though in California

Rick. "Tfs." TheFreshScent » Marijuana Field. The Fresh Scent, 4 May 2009. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <>.
We used this source for the picture on our board. The whole page is short articles about marijuana fields. The one that we took the picture from was simply a short one about 890 plants all about ten feet tall being found in Denver, just shows you that this plant is still going strong. Another one, not a source on here is above the article about the marijuana field in Denver, the article is about a new tool built that would make it easier to find grow operations in houses. The tool would fly over houses and find heat signatures from grow operations.

"Decriminalizing Marijuana." Acupuncture School Massage School Miami Florida. 29 Oct. 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2012. <>.
In this article our group used the picture for the sign over the actual work. The marijuana pot leaf looked really nice and showed off a marijuana well. This source is actually not a good one. The article talks about the reasons why marijuana would not be a good thing to make legal. The article is difficult to read, the first part talks about why marijuana should be made illegal and then the second part talks about California’s prop 19 that was voted on in 2010 after this article was written. This article is from an acupuncture clinic and is not well written.

Facts that are one the borad:

Harry J. Anslinger becomes head of the FBN (August 12, 1930)

Mexicans bring recreational smoking to America

Reefer Madness is released (1937)

Prop 215 is passed making medical marijuana legal in Califorina

June 14 1930 Federal Bureau of Narcotics is created

June 17 1971 President Richard Nixon declares war on drugs.

Norml an organization trying to repeal the prohibition of marijuana is created in 1970

“There are 100,000 total marijuana smokers in the US, and most are Negroes, Hispanics, Filipinos and entertainers. Their Satanic music, jazz and swing, result from marijuana usage. This marijuana causes white women to seek sexual relations with Negroes, entertainers and any others.” - Harry J. Anslinger

In 1969 the UN estimated that there were between 200,000,000 and 250,000,000 cannabis users in the world.

Marijuana has been illegal for less than 1% of the time that it’s been in use.

America’s first marijuana law was enacted at Jamestown Colony, Virginia in 1619. It was a law “ordering” all farmers to grow Indian hempseed.

Cannabis is a dioecious plant (i.e. an individual cannabis plant is either male or female)

Cannabis is a plant native to Central Asia that has spread all over the world and is probably the most widely used recreational and usually illegal drug in the world,

Marijuana is the most violence-causing drug in the history of mankind.” - Harry J. Anslinger

Approximately 0.6 percent (22.5 million) of people used cannabis daily.

Cannabis used medically has several well-documented beneficial effects. Among these are: the amelioration of nausea and vomiting, stimulation of hunger in chemotherapy and AIDS patients, lowered intraocular eye pressure (shown to be effective for treating glaucoma), as well as general analgesic effects (pain reliever).

Modern Interpretation
Marijuana is no longer as hated as it originally was back in the 1930’s. Since then lots has changed, people no longer believe that by smoking marijuana you will stab someone to death and Reefer Madness is a funny movie. The most recent thing about Marijuana is the medical use that is becoming popular in the United States. The research done on marijuana has shown its medical uses. Cancer, glaucoma, and now even PSD in soldiers that come back from war. The next step for marijuana is its legalization.

Process Paper:
For this project we chose to do our project of the history of Marijuana and how it became illegal and then the start of it becoming legal again. We chose this because it was something we found ourselves interested in learning about and we also wanted a challenging and controversial topic. It makes the project that much harder and we wanted to tackle that extra milestone. Not only are you informing one on the subject but also you are forcing them to expect the facts and put their personal beliefs on the topic a side and take in new knowledge. 

Most of the research we did had to be outside of school on our own time. This is because while in school and using the Philadelphia School District Internet connection many useful and extremely informative websites are blocked because they are about Marijuana, which is an illegal drug. While doing research at home we searched for hours and peer edited each other ideas for “good sources” before we agreed that the source was useful. We used Google advance searches and also watched many documentaries either together or separately and then came back and talked about what was talked about. We also searched YouTube for different types of PSA that were made. We wanted to have a mix of all possible types of sources that way our information was engaging and gave us ideas on how to show our work as well.

This project is related to the NHD theme because Marijuana has a very interesting history, which includes a Reaction, Revolution and a Reform, which is still taking, place today. Marijuana use dates back to BC times, Marijuana has been around from the beginning, whether it was Hemp or Marijuana. Marijuana has a point where it hit America hard and mostly everyone was against it and thought the drug made one crazy, which caused many to fear it. This then lead into the Revolution of Marijuana being made illegal which until recent has held strong. Following that comes the Reform of people starting to understand the Marijuana doesn’t make one crazy and in some cases can be very helpful and needed. It has medical uses that are very seriously needed and even personal uses that many enjoy. Marijuana’s past, present and even future has been a bumpy and will continue to be bumpy adventure with many important events that need to be highlighted and learned about, including the repetition of the RRRs.
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Marxism (Callie, Isabella, Taahir, Tucker)

Our project is about the effects of Marxism on governments across the span of the 19th and 20th century. In order to do this, we broke up our topics into three different studies. We used revolutions from three different countries (China, North Korea, and Russia) to show how Marxism has been placed in each government. However, our main idea was to focus on how Marxism’s primary doctrines and ideologies were not, and still isn’t followed. We chose this topic because we wanted to look at a system of ideals that has only partially been followed. We chose our countries in step with this idea.

The first thing we all did was research Marxism. We used sources that helped us get a solid grounding on the topic, and then used that knowledge in our research of the revolutions. Each of us chose smaller battles/protests in each of the revolutions. These studies include the Bolshevik revolution, North Korea vs. South Korea, and the May Fourth Movement. As we did our research, we found sources that gave accurate information about the time period as well as the event. We needed this because we were writing fictional journal articles as if we were from the time period. This was how we chose to display our information at first.

The majority of our sources are reports from college professors, online articles, or just informational documents. We did try and tackle the famous “Economic Philosophic Manuscripts,” but that turned out to be really very dense, and it was detracting from our overall message. Instead, we used videos given to us by our teacher. David Harvey, a professor who specializes in Marx, turned out to be a very useful source for us. We watched videos that gave us insight into Marxism that would have taken us a lot longer if done on our own.

In the end, we learned a great deal about the flaws of governmental ideals, and how crucial it is to have a system that falls in the middle of the spectrum. A system that is amalgamated with ideals from both Marxism and its antithesis can create a governmental set up that works just as efficiently as any seen today. Marxism has had a nominally latent existence, and has been pidgin holed by the common public as a corrupt system or a flawed system. However, the goal of this project was not to defend this idea or counteract it; it was to show that there is no country that has followed the doctrines and philosophies of Marxism to scrupulous detail. We found this to be true.


Marx, Karl. "Economic Philosophic Manuscripts." Economic Philosophic Manuscripts(1932): 1-81. Web.

This is a link to the PDF of Karl Marx’s Economic Philosophic Manuscripts. This is a primary source, because he was the author in 1844. This is essay will play a critical role in the way we conceptualize our idea of socialism. There are a lot of interpretations of what it means to have a Marxist government, and those interpretations originate from Karl Marx himself. That is why this primary source will be useful for the project. He mentions a lot of German ideologies that he uses as an influence for his writings. This inspires the idea of possibly connecting some of the older beliefs of Germany to the beliefs of Germany in the 20th century. Because the Russian revolution began in the early 20th century, the manuscripts would have had to have played a major role in how the leaders of  socialist movements later assessed their own ideals in the founding of the new governments.

Von Kühlmann, Richard. Richard Von Kühlmann on the Russian Revolution. Germany. 30 Nov. 1917.

This is a speech that the German foreign secretary, Richard Von Kühlmann, gave to the German Reichtag on November 30th, 1917. The speech presents his opinions on the Russian Revolutions and the way the world is reacting to them. He then goes into his opinions on the governments of countries such as England and France stating that “freedom of though and freedom of speech have been suppressed.” This source is valuable because it portrays the opinions of the revolutions from another country. Richard Von Kühlmann relates what is happening in Russia to what could possibly happen in Germany, which shows the international effect of the revolutions. His underlying tone is that Germany will prevail against other countries that are filled with “greed and power.” He believes that the powers of the east will be able to rise up against the inhumane powers of the west, which is not only a statement about Germany but a statement about much of the European continent.

Lenin, Vladimir. "Proclamation of 7 November 1917." Proclamation of 7 November 1917. Russia. 7 Nov. 1917. Speech. <>

This source is a speech given by Vladimir Lenin, a Marxist and communist revolutionist who led the Russian Revolutions, on October 25, 1917. In this speech he warns against a counter revolution and uprising of the military against the new government formed after the overthrow of Alexander Kerenski. He states that all military men must openly support and join the new government or else they will be arrested. The speech lists what the Petrograd Council of Workmen and Soldeir’s Delegate’s (new government)  sees as its top priorities, which includes but is not limited to, giving land to the peasants and a transfer of all power to the council. This source is valuable because it displays the intended goals of the new communist party in Russia and what the party was based on (its ideology).

Lenin, Vladimir. "Call to Power." Call to Power. Russia. 24 Oct. 1917. Speech.

This is a writing by Lenin titled “Call to Power,” on the 24th of October in 1917. In it he requests that power be taken away from Alexander Kerenski’s provisional government and be transferred a committee/party chosen by the people specifically the poor and starving. He warns that the government in place at the time was going to fall and that as a revolutionary/revolutionists they must not wait. It is written to the Soviet Central Committee and supposed to represent the voices of the people. He uses a very urgent tone warning that if something doesn't happen immediately the Soviet Union as a whole will lose everything. This source is valuable because it was one of the major factors contributing to the fall of the provisional government. The day after being written Kerenski’s government was overthrown which really shows the power of these words. Although technically a call to the Soviet Union, it addressed the protesters/revolutionists in hope of motivating them.

Lenin, Vladimir. "April Theses." April Theses. Saint Petersburg, Russia. Apr. 1917. Speech. <>

The April Theses was a chain of "directions" which was created by Vladimir Lenin when he returned to St. Petersburg, in response to the war. In the Theses, he summoned the soviets to take power and criticized the liberals in the Provisional Government. Before Lenin's return, the government was controlled by socialist in liberals, which created a democracy. Most of the directives called for new communist policies, also calling for a new government which would be imperial to all other forms of government in Russia.

Duffy/, Michael. "Manifesto of Russian Council of Workmen and Soldiers." First World Web. 06 Jan. 2012. <>.

The link is to a manifesto written by workers and soldiers.  Its dated to may 15 1917. They start off by explaining that the are speaking in the name of / support of the “ Russian Revolutionary Democracy”  and that as a people they didn’t wish to become involved with the war.  They go on to explain the adverse effects of Russia losing its freedoms.  Revolutionary russia was being threatened by a man power.   They are explaining to the soldiers on the battle front that they must fight to win or else “Revolutionary Russia” will be destroyed.  They are defending liberty in Russia because they are up against the German army that represents  When describing Russia in modern terms its described as being a communist country.   

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A Walk Through the Human Mind

​Process Paper

Psychology: the study of the human mind and its workings.  I choose this topic because I could personally connect to it. Growing up, my father was ill, so I wanted to know why and how. It was helpful because it helped me understand why he was ill and the chances that it can be passed down to me. Not only is it important to me and helped me, but it can help others as well. Understanding Psychology is the first step to understanding the mind.

While doing research for this, I found the site to be useful in finding written lectures by Sigmund Freud. Also since I already had some background knowledge on the topic, I knew who the “father of psychology” was so I started with him. From there I went to psychoanalysis, to the NYC Bomber and criminal profiling.  Another website I found helpful was It helped me with the research for the NYC bomber and Dr. James Brussel. 

I mostly relied on books though. Not ones written the by people I was researching, but ones written about them. Since it was so long ago, I couldn’t find interviews or autobiographies that they had written themselves.

A problem I encountered during my research was finding articles written on an article about a book written about the person that I researching and not being able to use them because they were credible. It took a lot of digging to find a source that directed related to the topic of psychology. These articles did lead me books that I was able to use but even though these articles were great in number, the sources they provided were few in number.

            I choose to relate my topic to all three words in the theme. For each word, I picked a specific date that showed how psychology has cause a revolution, who reacted and how it reformed our thinking on psychology. For revolution I choose the year 1883 because it was the year the Wilhelm Wundt began to voice his ideas to the scientific community. At first they were rejected because it was an unknown concept but soon some people were able to see it’s usefulness. Which leads us into reaction. Sigmund Freud gave his final lecture on psychoanalysis and psychology in the year 1932. It may seem strange to not use all of his lectures but I found that the last talked more about him as a human diagnosing people and not as a doctor diagnosing a patient. I also wanted to stay away from mentioning super ego, ego and id in my exhibit because I wanted to focus on him and the new concept he introduced, psychoanalysis. Lastly we have reform. Dr. James Brussel was able to enhance the concept even when he introduced criminal profiling to the FBI. In order to get the FBI’s attention, he first took it for a test run. He was able to profile the NYC Bomber in 1940 by analyzing his behavior.


Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources

Freud, Sigmund. "Lecture XXXV A Philosophy of Life." New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-analysis . Hogarth Press, 1933. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <>.

This source is of a lecture given by Sigmund Freud, written down. He talks greatly about religion and how it could influence behavior. There are a few times when he mentions Marxism but I do not understand if he relates that to Psycho-analysis. This source is reliable because it is form another man who has had a great influence in the world of psychology and he did change many things. I used the parts where he talked about how he got into psychology.


The layman's guide to psychiatry and psych-analysis. 3. California: Tantor eBooks of Tantor Media, 2011. eBook. <

This book is written for people who don’t have a profession in the field of psychology. It gives a general over view of the know how’s of the field. It talks about why people act the way they do and why others judge them the way that they do. It touches on a range of topics from emotions to dreams and from insanity to practical and impractical methods, all relating to the field of psychology and psychoanalysis. I used this to help created my loose definition of psychoanalysis.


Secondary Source

"The History of Psychology." Discovering Psychology.WGBH Educational Foundation,2001. Web.1 Jan 2012.<>.  This source is like a basic overview of how psychology has evolved from 1879 to 2000. It is a great place to start because it’s main focus is psychology but it also gives brief points on people and buildings that have influenced the advancement of psychology. The time line doesn’t stick to one person who has had an influence in this field but it expands to many people, which is why I think this source is reliable. I used this to help me find the people I would research on.


"Wilhelm Wundt and Introspection: the cultural contribution of the father of psychology." N.p., Jan 3. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <>.

This source is an essay written by someone on Wilhelm Wundt, a man otherwise known as the father of psychology. It talks about Wundt life in psychology and how he used introspection to evaluate the behaviors of the human mind. Essentially this text is a general overview of Wundt’s work through out his lifetime although it focuses mainly on introspection. It gives a clearer meaning on his work and it also included other sources that I can go to that may help me with my project. I used this source to help identify what part of Wundt’s work I was following.


M. Lothstein, Leslie. "The Transformation of Psychology: Influences of 19th-Century Philosophy, Technology, and Natural Science." The American Journal of Psychiatry. Psychiatry Online, 01, Mar 2003. Web. 1 Jan 2012. <>.

This source is about a textbook that gave an interesting viewpoint of both psychology and science as a whole. It mostly talks about chapter 11. Also about how politics play a role in psychology. I found this interesting since you wouldn’t think that something like that could influence a person behavior and memory so much. To the point where people felt the need to study it and see just how far the influence was rooted. I used this source to help create my loose definition of psychology.


Madden, Melissa Ann. "GEORGE METESKY: NEW YORK's MAD BOMBER-The Profiler." TruTV. TruTV, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2012. <>.

This article talks about George Metesky, the first big case that Dr. Brussel profiled that lead him to want to continue and create a new section to the FBI. It talks mainly of the process of what the police went through in trying to apprehend the bomber on their own for close to 10 years until they called Dr. Brussel. Though the police were skeptical, they went along with it and they did catch their guy. I used this source to get a better understanding of the Bomber’s work.


Plucker, Dr. Jonathan. "Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) German Philosopher & Psychologist." Human Intelegence. Indiana University, 25 July 2007. Web. <>.

This page talks about Wilhelm Wundt’s start in opening an Experiment Psychology Laboratory. It catered more toward German, philosophers and psychologist but American and British philosophers and psychologist were also welcomed. Everything he did was considered experimental because he was the first to do it. He set the limits that could be reached for research because there were know for him. I used this source because of the experimental laboratory.


Madden, Melissa Ann. "The Profiler." TruTV. TruTV, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2012. <>.

This article talks about Dr. James Brussel and how he profiled the NYC Bomber. It also talks about how he became involved in the case 10 years after it was opened. Though he had already began to profile the bomber before he was asked onto the case. He was doing because his inner psychiatrist was telling him to do it. I used this source because of the profile on the profiler.

I'll have pictures of my board up tomorrow.
Photos of each side
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Great president or man of mysteries.

process paper. 
During this project I learned a lot about president John F. Kennedy. Most people relate him to Marylin Monroe and the scandals that involved her. But there was a lot more to him than that. He was a man of many successes and many failures. His family always came first and he took risks that weren't always worth taking. Through my tumblr and Weebly viewers will learn about how people adored him and how people hated him. He had a very private life, which is still being exposed to this day. In the beginning I didn't even know what I was doing. At first I was just listing facts about him but I wasn't focusing on a particular part of his life. But as the project went on I figured out where I wanted to take my project and I took it there. I wrote a personal letter from a fictional character named Gracie. I made her a young girl who witnessed the assassination of her president, someone who she felt close to.  I focused on two parts, the assassination and the Bay of pigs which involved John F. Kennedys younger brother Robert, who was also his closest ally. This rocked the nation and was a huge disappointment and embarrassment for the United States. 

Gracie’s story.

November 22nd 1963 is a day that has a home in every history textbook and will be remembered by so many. It was they day president John. F. Kennedy was murdered. A young girl witnessed it with her own eyes. The harrowing event took place in Dallas Texas. JFK’s car was riding by, when Gracie Mack saw her president shot 3 times, once in the head and twice in the throat. Gracie witnessed him fall into his beautiful wife, Jackie Kennedy’s arms and heard her shout “Oh No”.  The car was sped up and went straight to the hospital. Upon arrival the president was still alive, but died 35 minutes later. Gracie couldn’t believe what she saw, she lost herself in her own mob of thoughts. Moments later more chaos arrived. She saw a white man, on the thin side, arguing with police officers, he gave her a look. One she had never seen before. She saw hate and death within his eyes and she instantly knew who he was and what he had done. His name was Lee H. Oswald, he was 24 years old, and he killed Gracie’s president. Oswald was under heavy investigation for two days. Gracie listened to her parents and others conversations around, on November 24th she heard that Oswald had been murdered. Murder was bad. So why did Gracie feel so good about it. Jack Ruby, someone that many knew seldom about. Even though most found it the right thing to do, murder was still a crime. Ruby tried to say that it wasn’t premeditated and that he didn’t know about where Oswald was being held. There were many different sides to JFK’s assasination. Gracie heard her great grandfather say that it was all Robert Kennedy’s fault, that he got the mafia involved the Kennedy administration. But Gracie didn’t want to hear the blame game, she didn’t want Lydon B. Johnson in charge of the country. She didn’t know what was going to happen, but she knew that it would change the way America was forever.


In this article by Tom Wrecker, the assassination of John F. Kennedy was exposed. Kennedy was shot on November 22nd 1963. He was shot at 12.30 pm and pronounced dead around 1 pm. Lee H. Oswald who was quite active within the Fair play for Cuba committee  ,was arrested later that night on accusations of killing John F. Kennedy. Oswald hit Mr. Kennedy with three shots, he fired the rifle from a building off the motorcade route. 106 minutes after the death of Kennedy, the vice president Lydon Baines Johnson swore into oath as America’s new president. "KENNEDY IS KILLED BY SNIPER AS HE RIDES IN CAR IN DALLAS; JOHNSON SWORN IN ON PLANE." NY Times Advertisement. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.

Jack Ruby was the man who killed Lee H. Oswald as he was being transferred from Dallas police headquarters to a nearby county jail. In an interview with Ruby, he said that he had no idea that Oswald was being moved, but many believe that the murder was premeditated. He claimed to have no idea that Oswald was being moved earlier, he said that nobody had told him, he thought it was going to be done at 10.00. Ruby had no prior knowledge as to whom Oswald was before the scandal. He said that the murder wasn’t intended but for the two days after Kennedy’s death all he felt was letdown and remorose "JFK: Jack Ruby's Deathbed Interview." JFK Online: JFK Assassination Resources Online. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.

Interviews with Jacqueline Kennedy were hidden for almost 50 years, the interviews with Mrs. Kennedy were conducted four monthes after the assassination of her husband. She talked a lot about how JFK was as a person, about how much he loved his children, and how he would always come to his family before going to the office and getting to work. She talked a lot about the Cuban missal crisis, which was the closest the U.S came to a nuclear war. It was a very stressful time for JFK, but Jacqueline stayed by his side the entire time, she refused to go on any sort of vacations, and made sure he was given the comfort that he needed. "Jacqueline Kennedy Tapes, Recorded After JFK Assassination, Reveal Intimate Secrets - YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.

Robert F. Kennedy was not only JFK’s brother, but also his closest political ally. His role today would be almost impossible. He had plans of getting rid of Americas biggest enemies. He feared that it was his fault that his brother was killed. He believed that his drive to prosecute the mob and kill Castro had backfired and resulted with the assassination. He felt as though the death was supposed to be for him and it came to haunt his family. When he got news of his brothers death, there was no emotion or grief, just utter shock, the moment he found out that his brother was dead, he quickly began making phone calls in search of who killed JFK. There were questions as to why Robert Kennedy didn’t play a bigger role in helping to find out who killed his brother. Some say the main reason was simply denial that his wound was too big, and others say that he didn’t want the government to find out what he was doing on the sides with Castro. "Robert Kennedy Struggled With JFK's Assassination - ABC News." - Breaking News, Latest News & Top Video News - ABC News. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.

In The Wink a book by Barr McClellan, he opens up to the controversial idea that vice president Lyndon B. Johnson was behind the assassination of JFK. McClellan said that Johnson had the moves and the motives to do it. Some say that the theories are complete bogus, but McClellan and his family, speculate that Johnson, was in it for the money power and blood. He also involved Edward Clark, who was an embassador saying that he covered the assassination for Johnson. Jeong, Hye. "LBJ Behind JFK Killing - New Book - Remember 'The Wink'" Jeff Rense Program. Web. 05 Jan. 2012. <>.

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Nat Hist Day BMark by: Aja Wallace and Jésus Jímenez

This is the link to our Weebly website


A topic of interest for any further research is looked at at the easiest aspect of any project itself. For my partner and I, this simple task was not as easy as it was set up to be. We were fully aware of the fact that we wanted to have a topic that involved something with Cuba, The Cuban Revolution or The Cuban Missile crisis. Anything that had to do with Cuba in some manner, was the route my partner and I knew we wanted to take. We just randomly decided to research about Cuba because it is a place we wish we could visit but we did not know too much about it. Revolution, was the first word that came to mind trying to think NHD wise, so The Cuban Revolution it was.

Conducting the research was slightly all over the place in the beginning. There was not a set way to look for things. The idea was to just find anything that would be found on the topic, then later narrow the larger group down. So more direct articles could be found. After finding some of the sources that we felt were of quality use, dissecting what was needed became the next step. The idea behind the information was sharing pieces about The Cuban Revolution that any viewer who was not apart putting together the project, would find the information insightful.

PRESENTATION! Is one of the five core values, that Science Leadership Academy has, so choosing a way to display any information found just mean it had to be appealing to an audience. And what better way to do so than a website. To us the idea of a website, was something that would make any viewer want to see more. The first thought when most people are looking at a website for the first time is, wanting to explore to see what will be found. That is the affect my partner and I were going for.

The Cuban Revolution relates to the NHD theme, simply because it is national history. Revolution, reaction and reform, these terms gave there meanings when Fidel Castro transitioned from a Rebel to leader in the time that Cuba went through some of it’s changes. Fidel was the voice of his Cuban people, because his idea was to take over Cuba for the people. Fidel started to cause chaos, he then received the reaction he wanted from Batistia. Which allowed him to eventually take office. With that Cuba was going through a turn. Losing their sugar trade causing getting 80% of their exports taking away. A corrupt economy it was, retaliation was the next step. The first attempt was to furtively assassinate Fidel.  

Bringing back the relics of a bygone Cuba was a challenge within itself. Aside from seeing how Cuba related to the NHD theme. My partner an I also wanted people to understand, that a revolution can slowly persistent even at its nadir.

Primary Sources

Latin American Studies. "Rebels Entering Havana (January 1959)." The Cuban Revolution (1952-1958). N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Feb. 2012. <>.

This primary source is a picture of Fidel and the people he associate himself with. This picture was taken in 1956 in Mexico City. This picture supports one of our articles where we talk about Castro’s plans to go back to Cuba. Many things happened in Mexico that this picture represents. First of all, Castro still has supporters when he gets to Mexico, indicating that he still has a strong group of followers, faithful enough to take back Cuba. This picture is one that will be used in the website. It will be located in the 1953 - 1959 page.

. Havana Tank. N.d. Rebels Entering Havana, Havana, Cuba. The Cuban Revolution  Web. 15 Feb. 2012.

Fidel an his men were going into Havanna. The streets at which Castro drove down were filled with crowds of people on both sides, watching as he entered. Everybody seemed to be for Fidel and the ways he told people he was going to revolutionize things. Gaining much respect for the way he was, withing being in the public eye he was just trying to do what was in the ‘best interest’ of Cuba. This picture showed the expression on the faces of the people an Fidel as they enter. Which in turn sets the tone of the situation clearly.

Phillips, R. Hart. "Castro Assaults Cuban Army Post." Latin American Studies. Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <>.

This was an article out of the New York Times. Castro and a number of armed or armed forces swept down out of Sierra Maestra to attack the former field headquarters of the Cuban Army.  Cuban Army headquarters issued a press release stating that the rebels had attacked the Estrada Palma post. This piece in a way explains the mind set of Castro and shows what he is capable of doing and what he will do to get what he wants. Giving ideas how he takes over and his approach to conquer along with the people involved in doing so.

Time. "CUBA: The Vengeful Visionary - TIME." Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. <,9171,892091,00.html>.

There was an issue of TIME Magazine, that had a picture of Fidel Castro on the cover. I found an article on TIME’s website from 1959, which is from the same month the Cuban Revolution came to a close. Unfortunately, I need a subscription to TIME to access the article, as I can only read the first paragraph or so. This source was used, because we felt as thought it was a key to writing any of these articles. The information was the missing part to the entire projects. My partner and I really liked using this resource, although the information was very little.

Korda, Alberto . CheyFidel.jpg. N.d. Mueseo de Che Guevara, Havana, Cuba. Web. 27 Dec. 2011.

This is a picture of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, Che was a big help during the revolution and earned the trust of Fidel Castro, which earned him a good spot in Cuba’s new government. Both men were commandantes of their own group of guerrilla fighters which were made of peasants and many other natives. The picture was taken 1961 before the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cubans already won by this point. This picture will be put at the end of the 1959 -1960 page to symbolize the future of Cuba. Since by the reporter’s perspective, it was a bit hard to see what was coming next for Cuba.

“16. Assignment in Cuba." Latin American Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. <>.

This is a recollection of events by a female reporter in Cuba, reporting the events that happened there during the revolution. It’s written as a memoir sort of, and it is based on her experience on the island, so it’s useful as a primary source. She writes about her memories of being on the battlefield, and other things such as her life while being there. Although some might think she was just a reporter. He thoughts and experience is much valued. My partner and I like primary sources as such because when a reporter reports things it is almost as if it an interview, because the insight they give it awesome.

"U.S. reporters covering the Cuban Revolution." Latin American Studies. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2011. <>.

During the Cuban revolution, there were many U.S. reporters hanging around Fidel Castro and his men, even a camera man named Wendell Hoffman from CBS was there as well. Although I get a lot of names from this source, it’s difficult to find any information left from any of these people. Some of the information I do find is in books I have to pay for, but I’m curious to find anything filmed by Wendell, to see if it is up anywhere on the Web. My partner and I decided to use this resource because we though it was similar to the other primary source being like an interview due to all of the reporters.

Castro, Fidel . "The Revolution Begins Now." Marxists Internet Archive. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2011. <>.

This is a speech Fidel Castro gave in Santiago. This was at the end of the Cuban Revolution, after all the fighting was over and Batista left Cuba. In this speech, Castro talks about the changes that he will make in Cuba, along with how grateful he is for the people that supported and aided in the revolution. My partner an I decided to use this source because we felt it would be the finishing touch to the history. When doing history research, there is always a source that is full of information that you can break down in so many ways.

Secondary Sources
Sierra, J.A.. "The Landing of the Granma - The Castros return to Cuba, 1956." Cuban history begins here. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <>.

This article was written by J. A Sierra, a news reporter. This is can was a reliable source. The article gave insight to the basic outline of life of Fidel. Giving the main points that really had an affect on the revolution. introducing when Fidel started to take over Havanna, with his men. Also tleling about some of the physical fights he went threw with his men. While they were in Sierra Maestra, Castro felt as thought the fight has just began.This piece in a way explains the mind set of Castro showing what he was capable of doing.

Franqui, Carlos. "Cuban Revolution: Attack on the Moncada Army Barracks." Cuban history begins here. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012.<>.

Introduction written by Tana De Gamez from a book written by Carlos Franqui The introduction was, about the original attack on the Moncada Barracks. We decided to use this secondary resource because of thorough coverage of the first sign of revolution Castro showed to the Batista regime. It contains information such as the type of people that joined Castro’s forces. And what happened afterwards when the attack failed. Nice little source.      

"American Experience | Fidel Castro | Timeline | PBS." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <>.

From this source, we have a good and reliable timeline for the Cuban Revolution up to the year 1976. Since the beginning of the time line, there are brief descriptions of what happened year by year, through the revolution beyond the reconstruction and into the Cuban Missile Crisis. We used this resource as a way to keep track of the dates to have accurate information in the written aspects of our project. The timeline used in the resources was also good for tying everything together, including other sources we used on our research. The dates of the many events came in handy.

"Cuban Revolution." N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2011. <>.

This source leads to another summary of the revolution along with links to speeches and topics about socialism. It is also important to note that this website tells us how much money Batista took with him and where he went once he fled Cuba, $300 million must’ve been a lot back in 1959, and it would be good to go in deeper to find out how he got that money and if it was from corruption. We used this resource as a quick summary overview of how we could present our articles. The quick outline of the Cuban revolution was ideal for developing articles with on a 1200 word limit.

Lotta, Raymond. "U.S. Imperialism, the Cuban Revolution, and Fidel Castro." Revolution #261, February 26, 2012. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <>.

Raymond Lotta writes about U.S imperialism in Cuba. Even after the revolution, Cuba still needed to be part of the world market. That part was covered briefly in our project and explained how sugar was the main source of economic profit for Cuba after the revolution and reconstruction. The source also includes statistics about the sugar industry, more specifically about the statistics about Cuba’s involvement in that industry. Another aspect of this written piece is the fact that Castro never said he was communist. This is something important to clear up and acknowledge, he was a Marxist, which does not mean you are communist. It’s a different form of ideology and is implemented sometimes within a government but is not always successful.


Brice, Arthur. "Memories of boyhood in the heat of the Cuban revolution -" International - Breaking, World, Business, Sports, Entertainment and Video News. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2012. <>.

Arthur had a first hand experience when Batista lost power and gave up the island. He is also a refugee from Cuba and was among those who fled the island. We used this article as a reference to how the public felt about certain events in Cuba. Even though Arthur was at the young age of 5 during the end of the revolution, he speaks from the perspective of his parents also, since the revolution also affected them as residents of the country. Arthur Brice has helped tie in the public’s side of the revolution with this project, seeing as most of the people fighting in the guerillas were farmers and people that wanted change.

      Batista&. "Cuban Revolution." ThinkQuest : Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Dec. 2011. <>.

This website has a lot written about the Cuban Revolution and is essential as it has a solid summary about it. The website also has links to other websites regarding the Cuban Revolution. Although the summary of the revolution is brief, it serves as a good source to look at if we need to refresh our minds. The links on page redirect to other speeches that Castro has done over the course of the revolution. This website is an excellent resource, as we can quote Castro through the various speeches provided on the page. Through these speeches we can see the revolution through his eyes and understand what he meant.

Depalma, Anthony. "The New York Times Upfront | The News Magazine for High School." Scholastic | Children's Books and Book Club | Web. 30 Dec. 2011. <>.

This piece of information was from the New York Times years,  after the Cuban Revolution happened. Many of Cuba’s richest people gather together to welcome the new-year, at which they thought would be better for them after 50 years. Most of the Cubans basic human rights was not good to the economy, it helped sink it. The soviet leaders than agreed to remove the missiles, Kennedy then promised that the U.S would not invade Cuba, again. This site to helped with a more general introduction to the topic and explaining how it began to prolong over the many years.

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Phenomenal Women Jamelia Barrett Loren Jenkins

 500 Word Process:

Why we chose this topic:
 My partner and I didn’t know where to start at first with this project. Honestly, we had a hard time choosing something that would keep our interest, and we wanted a topic that wouldn’t bore us. When our teacher introduced us to some ideas it came upon that the WCTU known as the Woman Christian Temperance Union has caught our eye. Finding information wasn’t hard, and it was quick to find things that were interesting, which had motivated us to learn and do more on this project. In the process we learned that the WCTU was on one of the first all woman Christian alliance that was against the usage and founding of alcohol.

How I conducted my research:  First we did a research on the WCTU and how the organization works, also we looked on the motifs and believe and value. And what are some of the thing they have done that had made a change in our history. Then while doing the research on the WCTU we found out that during the 1920 the fought to get alcohol illegal. And we also realize that this era was called the Prohibition era. This lead us to do our project /exhibit on the prohibition era through the eyes of the WCTU. While doing this research on the WCTU we saw the opportunity to do something on the prohibition which was a important part of the history. During this time a lot of significant things happen.


How we created the EXHIBIT: My group member and I started to organize the important points of our research. We created outline of the most important picture and quote of our project. We then look on the rule in the NHD rule book of how the exhibit should be for example the height width, 500 word limit. Then we collaborated and work on printing the picture and the font also we designed the broad so it looks presentable.


How our project related to the theme:

Or project is related to the theme because it is research done within a important time period in history. The theme for this year was Revolution, Reaction, and Reform in History and this was a event that happen 50 years ago. We were able to show what lead up to the revolution of the alcohol being illegal. The reaction after when the alcohol became illegal violence and crime rates rose ,flapper was stating to develop ,the women during that time the 19 amendment granted the women the right to vote ,illegal underground dealing of alcohol and the speakeasies were developed and the stock market also crashed. The reform was that the 21 amendment made alcohol legal again and it the amount was modified. This was a very important because never 200 years an amendment has been repealed. So this why our theme is related to the theme of the national history day’s theme ,it’s portray each term of Revolution, Reaction, and Reform each has a example of how the relate.





        WCTU. "WCTU Opposes Amethyst Initiative." Welcome to the WCTU. Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <>.

            I found this web page helpful because we have done the prohibition of alcohol through the WCTU. eyes and this a example of how the WCTU is still fighting the same issue they fought for 50 years ago. So this gave on information on what the WCTU is doing presently.



Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Minnesota. "Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Minnesota Records. Dates:." Minnesota Historical Society. Web. 2009. <>.

              This a site which give information and the different WCTU conference that was hold over a consecutive year .This show how one of the subdivision of the WCTU how the run they run their meeting the order of protocols. Records related to statewide women’s organization focused primarily on raising public awareness of the personal and social problems brought about by the consumption of alcoholic beverages, and on the advocacy of individual abstinence and prohibition. Includes records of district and local unions (chapters).

Elizabeth, Wiillard. "Let Something Good Be Said: Speeches and Writings of Frances E. Willard - Frances Elizabeth Willard, Carolyn De Swarte Gifford." Google Books. Board of Trustee,  2009. Web. 06 Jan. 2012. < id=kt6w5t1YStcC>.

This is a book about the first president of the WCTU. Its autobiography on the president, and the many speeches she gives at every rally meeting and protest. It talks about her journey of campaigner all over the country to recruit. How the conduct a meeting and this book celebrate the effort Willard put in to form and get women to fight for the cause she stands for.

McGrewcalifronia, Jane Lang. "History of Alcohol Prohibition." DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy. California Drug Policy. Web. 09 Jan. 2012. <>.
This a source that give a break down of the years of the WCTU. Its full with information of the different activity that happens. It also gives excerpt from interview with different members of the organization. The reason why theses women put their life on the line to support a good cause and get the government to make alcohol illegal.

Anonimous. "Alcohol Prohibition." Economic History Associatio, 2 Jan. 2010. Web. 2 Jan. 2011. <>.

This a very informative site that give you the step by step breakdown with the day when the the Prohibition ended. This will give me incite on what happen and the effect it had on the society after. One example after the Prohibition the crime rate raised. and the was uncover bars ruined and illegal Raids . EH.NET " e evidence on Prohibition and crime focuses on the homicide rate, since this is the only type of crime for which data are reported consistently both before, during, and after Prohibition.10 Figure 3 presents the homicide rate in the United States (measured as homicides per 100,000 population) for the period 1900-1995" This is one of the statics that the source gave.

Elly, Martin. "Prohibition Era Timeline - Timeline of Prohibition Era." American History  From About. American Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>.

             I used this source to figure out the different time and date that related to my topic . it help me to know the specific dates for each leg of the journey of Prohibition . I will used this to make a timeline to show on the blog to help to provide as reference .

WCTU. "| WCTU Drinking Fountains | Glendora CA |." Welcome to the WCTU. Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 29 Sept. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <>.

            This a picture of a old WCTU fountain. this what they women of that organization put these outside of saloon to promote the men to drink water and not alcohol. This will help us to tell our story visually





Secondary Source:

Albalagh Children Home. "Prohibition of Alcohol." Albalagh Home Page. Albalagh Children Home. Web. 28 Feb. 2012. <>.

             This source has help us to understand the prohibition in a nutshell. I was able to get the main idea of what the prohibition was about and how it developed. This is really help I would recommend it to any one who is doing a project on the prohibition.
- This is a photo on one of the fountains that were made around the drinking problems started to occur. They where put up around saloons that where closing or selling very low products of alcohol. These where created for people to have a nice cold drink instead of running to the saloons to get a beverage that only caused harm to them. This was a way to relax those heavy drinkers and switch to something that where more refreshing. Many of these where set among the streets that supported the WCTU, and some in front of saloon fronts.

* WTCU. N.d. Photograph. Drinking fountain , Glendora CA. Web. 09 Jan 2012. <>.

- This photo reads "Lips That Touch Liquor Shall Not Touch Ours". Back then drinking was a crime and still is today. Many people do it for fun,but don't realize that effect it has on themselves and other people. It became such a problem back in the day when woman thought that drinking was a horrible thing. The smell of it on your breath or just around the person who abused drinking was ranked from it. They found it to be unattractive and a destroyer.

*WTCU. N.d. Painting. n.p. Web. 09 Jan 2012. <>.

It May Be a Losing Battle, but W.C.T.U. Is Out There Fighting
- I want to use this source because is shows  the WCTU success in Chicago on August 06,1971. I am really proud too see that they loose very few battles. They all stood together to fight for justice, and that's what caught eye for other woman in other states to join then in this revolution. The WCTU union has been able to grow over the year in their time an d has reached more then 10 states to walk through this war with them. To this much liquor (--------------------------------------------------------------------------) in state attract to a small amount of this (---). The WCTU is still around, and many families still struggle with the drug abuse today. Mostly which can lead to child abuse, self abuse, abuse to others, and lead to mentally and physically distraction.

* *"It May Be a Losing Battle, but W.C.T.U. Is Out There Fighting." New York Times. 06 09 1971: 1. Web. 13 Jan. 2012.

Susanna Madora Salter --
First Woman Mayor

by Monroe Billington
- This is a story about a woman named Susanna Madora. She was elected by the W.C.T.U to be an officer for her district.  She had a struggle making it in the WCTU because of the negativity that she had to go through just to get her votes in was ridicules. Men like today where jealous that woman was able to have such power and control over the organization they were running.There were so many hacks and scams they did from keeping her being successful in the WTCU. It's a shame that men where selfish to ever see a woman do good, or let alone see a woman do better then them.

*Billingtion, Monroe. "Susanna Madora Salter -- First Woman Mayor ." Kancoll. Kansas Collection: Kansas Historical Quarterlies , Autumn 1954. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <>.

Frances Willard
- I want to use this in our project because it talks about the first woman who was the heading of the WCTU. WIllard was also the first dean of woman. I think talking about the first woman is import an because she is the one who had the most work, and the most compassion for this. I would add things about her old life when she was a child, until she was adult.I want to talk about what made her interested in starting the alliance agasint alcohol. There are a few interested things such as her not being married, and having a travel and sedentary companion for 22 years. She was a woman.
* Johnson- Lewis, Jone. "Womans History." Frances Willard. About, n.d. Web. 13 Jan 2012. <>.


2012-03-12 16.09.14
2012-03-12 16.07.37
2012-03-12 16.07.03
2012-03-12 16.07.30
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Process Paper

My project is about Solidarity, the independent trade union that revolutionised the way the communist government of Poland governed Poland and the working people. Last summer, I had the opportunity to travel to Poland, and Gdańsk, the birthplace of Solidarity. I chose this topic because it is something that does not get much publicity or acknowledgement in the United States of America, but Solidarity, or Solidarność in Polish, revolutionised the country and influenced the world. 

For my research I had read various articles from 1980; articles and papers that reflected back on the event; and the Solidarity and the Gdańsk website. I read the articles and papers and took notices for reference. I also looked for some quotes from people such as Lech Wałęsa from 1980 around the time of the strike. 

I chose to do an exhibit because I thought it would best display the information that my project contains. 

Solidarity is the independent trade union that was set up in Gdańsk, Poland during a time of economic struggles due to the oppression of the Communist government in Poland. Solidarity succeeded in improving the rights of Polish workers, such as employment, compensation, workplace and health & safety conditions, influencing economic and social policies, the protection and promotion of culture and education, and the overall improvement of the human rights of the workers. What made Solidarity so revolutionary was that this was the first time any group of people had successfully changed the way the strict and oppressive communist government of Poland governed. The creation and success of the Solidarity Movement is what led to the downfall of the communist government in Poland. Solidarity was also the influencing factor in reforming the Polish government. Together, with the people of Poland, Solidarity paved the way for other post-Soviet countries to become independent from their Soviet communist rule.


„Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. „Count on Me” - „Solidarity” Poster. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <>.

As a part of their campaign, Solidarity created various posters promoting their cause. This poster is of two hands grasping each others wrists as if to show that they support each other and that they are there for one another. At the top of the poster is the text „Licz na mnie,” which translates into english to „Count on me.” The posters were used to visually promote the feeling that Solidarity was there for the workers and were trying to improve the working conditions and living quality for them as well as ending the communist rule.

"Europe's Revolution 20 Years on." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation, 2 Nov. 2009. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <>.

The Solidarity movement triggered the end of the cold war and the communist rule in Eastern Europe in Poland and Eastern Europe. The relationship between the United States and Poland has been strengthened because of the pro-democracy Solidarity Movement. Solidarity also influenced other countries to revolt and take back their country from the communist government’s rule. Followed by Solidarity’s victory in the Polish election, many other countries began to reform their government. The struggle between Solidarity and the Polish communist government lasted for a decade. But in the end, it really was Poland and the Solidarity movement that lead to the first non-communist government in Eastern Europe.

Górka, W. Anna Walentynowicz, Activist of Free Trade Unions, among Workers. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <>.

In the photograph, Anna Walentynowicz is talking to a group of Polish shipyard workers and other civilians. Anna Walentynowicz was the very dedicated shipyard worker who got fired just a few days before she was due to retire. She played an active role in the start of Solidarity. The strike was sparked by the shipyard workers’ outrage over the firing of Walentynowicz. Walentynowicz became a main speaker and advocate for the workers because she had worked so hard for the shipyard and for the defense of the workers. This photograph shows the passion that Walentynowicz had in the concerns for the workers and the interest that others had in hearing her words.

Karta. Gdańsk Memorial Unveiling Ceremony. December 1970. Digital image.Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <>.

This picture shows the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers. The monument was erected as apart of the Gdańsk Agreement to pay tribute and honour the 42 workers who had died in the 1970 December strike. The monument is composed up of three large steel crosses with an anchor crucified to the top of each. At the unveiling of the monument, people packed in the surrounding area to see the monument located outside of gate 2 of the Lenin Shipyard. In the photograph, you can see that people were standing on top of buildings, fences, anything that would get them a better vantage point of the monument.

Kulish, Nicholas. "Poland Leads Wave of Communist-Era Reckoning." New York Times. New York Times, 20 Feb. 2012. Web. 5 Mar. 2012. <>.

The Polish Court is now cracking down on the Communist Leaders and declaring them a part of a criminal group because of their martial law in December 1981. Other Countries that were formerly under the Iron First are taking similar action. Looking at the current situation in the Arab Nations has motivated Poland and other Eastern European countries to look back when the communists still held power. "Poland is wrestling with its past." The Communist government were oppressive and torturous to those under their rule.

Lewandowski, G. V-for-victory Sign Was One of Many Symbols of “Solidarity” (. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <>.

This poster shows the V-for-victory sign, which was one of the symbols of Solidarity for their great success over their first year in existence. This poster was created a year after Solidarity was formed. At this time, people were reflecting back on Solidarity and it’s progress. As the first independent and self-governing trade union of Poland, it was great feat for the workers and people of Poland in overcoming the communist rule. Solidarity had achieved a lot of great things in their first year, and had already become a very influential factor in the workers unions of other countries and the rule of the Eastern European communist countries.

"Poland." New York Times. New York Times, 05 Mar. 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <>.

Poland was the only post-Soviet country to come out of Soviet rule and not go into economic recession. On October 2011, Donald Tusk triumphed over conservative Jarosław Kaczynski in the Polish elections. Tusk is the new pro-European Union prime minister, who is in support of many contemporary concerns such as gay rights, abortion, and some drug legalisation. Because Poland is apart of the EU, it has embedded itself in Europe economics and politics. However, Poland does not use the Euro, which is considered a Euro-Soviet Bloc trait. Poland is trying to continue to independently raise above their previous oppressors, Russia and Germany.

McIntire, Suzanne, and William E. Burns. "The Value of Human Solidarity." Speeches in world history. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 502-505. Print.

“I belong to a nation which over the past centuries has experienced many hardships and reverse. The world reacted with silence or with mere sympathy when Polish frontiers were crossed by invading armies…” (Lech Wałęsa). “In July and August of 1980 a wave of strikes swept throughout Poland. The issue at stake was then something much bigger than only material conditions of existence.” (Lech walęsa). “In the brief history of those eventful years, the Gdańsk Agreement stands out as a great charter of the rights of the working people which nothing can ever destroy.” (Lech Wałęsa). “Our union—the Solidarity— has grown into a powerful movement for social and moral liberation. The people, freed from the bondage of fear and apathy, called for reforms and improvements. We fought a difficult struggle for out existence. That was and still is a great opportunity for the whole country. I think that it marked also the road to be taken by authorities, if they thought of a state governed in cooperation and participation of all citizens. 

Michalak, T. Strike in the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk. 1980. Photograph. Solidarity, Gdańsk. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <>.

The picture is an aerial view on the shipyard in Gdańsk, where the strike started on August 14th, 1980. In the picture, you can see a mass of people gathering around the entrance of the shipyard. The crowd of people is composed up of both shipyard workers and other citizens who just came out to show their support for the shipyard workers in their strike. The people are crowded around the fence and entrance to the shipyard as well as a cross, located in the middle of the courtyard. The photograph really shows the amount of support the shipyard workers had from their community and fellow Polish citizens.

Poster Commemorating the Unveiling in Gdańsk of the Memorial to Killed Shipyard Workers. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <>.

This poster is promoting the unveiling of the Monument for the Fallen Shipyard Workers, honouring the workers who were killed in the strike in 1970. The 1970 strike was violent; 42 people were killed when the security services fired on the workers’ revolting. As apart of the demands of the workers who when on strike in 1980, a monument honouring those who died was to be erected. The poster is of the monument and on the left of it is the word „Grudzień,” which in Polish, means December, which is when the 1970 strike happened. The monument is composed up of three crosses, each with a anchor on the top, to symbolise the shipyard workers.

Składanowski, S./Karta. Lech Wałęsa, Triumphantly Carried Shoulder-high after the Signing of the First Point of the Agreement. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <,%20MSZ.JPG>.

Lech Wałęsa is held up on the shoulders of Solidarity supporters in celebration of victory after the signing of the agreement. This was a great accomplishment for the Solidarity Trade Union because it was their first break through in the communist bloc of Poland. Behind Lech Wałęsa are crowds of supporters and even people looking out of their windows; this shows the wide spread support that Solidarity had amassed. The first signing of the agreement was something that all Polish citizens in support of Solidarity celebrated, especially the workers of the Lenin Shipyard and other surrounding Shipyards.

“Solidarity” Poster Using the Colours of the National Flag. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <>.

After the signing of the Gdańsk Agreement, posters such as this one were used to promote Solidarity and celebrate their victory. This poster used the colours of the Polish flag, and tie it into a knot as if to illustrate the new found unity of the workers at the Shipyard and the people of Poland. After the agreement had been signed, Solidarity’s main goal was gaining more support and organising itself to become very successful. Posters were used as an advertisement for their campaign, reaching more people than going from person to person.

Tagliabue, John. "Thousands at Gdansk Shipyard Join Polish Strike - New York Times."The New York Times. The New York Times, 3 May 1988. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <>.

Strikes continued after 1980, demanding higher pay and legalisation of the Solidarity trade union. The government retained regional Solidarity leaders. “A strike wave is covering the country. They are not just local conflicts. They are across Poland because the cause is the economic crisis and lack of convincing reform policies that would offer prospects for the future,” (Lech Wałęsa). Crowds would gather around the shipyards and striking workers and leave flowers to show their support. Police would push the crowds back and away from the striking workers. The strikes were centred around more equal and fair treatment and higher pay as well as their trade union being more acknowledged.

Trybek, Z./Karta. Signature of the Agreement between the Interfactory Strike Committee and the Government Delegation. Digital image. Solidarity. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Web. <,%20Trybek.JPG>.

The workers’ representatives and government commission meet together to sign the Gdańsk Agreement. The Gdańsk Agreement ended the strike and agreed to the demands of the workers, allowing the establishment of self governing trade unions. Lech Wałęsa can be seen signing the Gdańsk agreement with an oversized plastic pen, bearing the face of the pope, Pope Jan Paweł II. The workers’ representatives, MKS, met with Mieczysław Jagielski, who at the time was surviving as prime minister for the communist government. The Gdańsk Agreement was Solidarity’s big breakthrough. Unlike the strike in 1970, which ended in violence, the Gdańsk Agreement was what ended the 1980 strike in peace.


Alex. "1970-71: Uprising in Poland." Libcom, 31 Oct. 2008. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>.

December strikes in 1970, when thousands of shipyard workers in Gdańsk marched into the city in protest of the increased prices on basic consumer goods. Their goal was to reach the local regional office of the Polish United Workers’ Party (PZPR). The protesters were met by police and engaged in fighting. The three port cities of Poland were placed under telecommunications block by the government. By the end of December, most of the shipyards in the main port cities had gone on strike. At the end of January, a more democratic strike committee was formed and an agreement was formed. This uprising was the first time the Polish workers had demanded a change and won. It paved the way for the strikes that changed Poland forever.

Blazejowska, Justyna. "Solidarity 1980-2010." Free Poland. Free Poland, 04 Oct. 2011. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <>.

More strikes continued but Solidarity stood as a mediator for the workers, reducing the amount of strikes but getting the workers their demands. Solidarity became politically involved giving them more power while slowly taking away the power of the communist leaders. Lech Wałęsa was put into power but resigned on December 12, 1990. The Union got about 5% of the support in the elections in 1990, which gave them 27 deputy seats. But the little votes for Solidarity throughout various elections were considered a failure for the Union. But in 1997, Solidarity received 33% of the votes. Then the Union left the political scene, but they had reformed the political scene completely.

Donovan, Jeffrey. "Poland: Solidarity -- The Trade Union That Changed The World."Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. RFE/RL, 24 Aug. 2005. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. <>.

The strike that began on the 14th of August 1980 changed both Poland and the world. 17,000 workers went on strike at the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańsk in protest of the rising food prices among other things. This was the first time that the Communist government had given into the demands of the workers. In September of 1980, the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarity (NSZZ) was formed. After a year, nearly a quarter of Poland ad joined the trade union. Solidarity was the first breakthrough in the Communist block of Poland. Leader of the shipyard strikes was Lech Wałęsa, who had nearly been arrested by the secret police the morning of the strike, but succeeded in climbing over the shipyard gate and join the rest of the workers.

Moberg, Beata. SolidarityUniversity of St. Francis - Joliet, Il. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <>.

Trade union was formed during the economic and social struggles in communist Poland. Workers of the Lenin Shipyard in Gdańśk started the wave of strikes on August 14th. The demand was more freedom from the communist management of the shipyards. Their request was for an increased pay, fair treatment, free trade union, and uncensored media. The strikers got a mass of support from the other citizens around the area and the church. On August 31st Mieczyslaw Jagielski and Lech Wałęsa signed the Gdańsk Agreement. This was a great breakthrough in the communist government and party. Solidarność became a nationwide organisation that revolutionised the communist involvement in industry. This was a big deal because the communist government did not tolerate loss of authority. Together the workers overthrew communism in Poland, and it all started on August 14th with the shipyard strike in Gdańsk.

"NSZZ Solidarność‡ History in Dates." NSZZ Solidarność History in Dates. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <>.

The Solidarity movement has continued to make progress and provide more rights for the workers. They had managed to increase minimum wage up to 40% in 2006. The continue to set up campaigns in support of the workers in Poland and workers all across the world. They have trade union representatives from the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia; all countries that were formally under the Iron Fist. While they have taken a few steps away from directly being apart of the political scene, they are still have a great influence on it and often meet with parliamentary representatives.

"NSZZ Solidarność‡ Objectives." NSZZ Solidarność‡ Objectives. Multimedia Productions. Web. 05 Mar. 2012. <>.

The object of Solidarity continues to be the guarantee of workers rights as in all areas, fight unemployment, improve vocational qualifications, protect the interests of the workers and their families, maintain and mediate for a proper management, influence economic and social polices, promote democracy, foster patriotic attitude, help those with special needs and care, strengthen family life, cooperate and collaborate with other international organisations, protect culture and education, advocate for environmental protection, as well as represent the workers. Solidarity will achieve this by continuing to represent their members before their employers, the government and other institutions, monitoring the workplace, provide legal counselling, union training, and just being there for the workers and attend to their needs.

NSZZ Solidarność. Multimedia Productions. Web. 10 Jan. 2012. <>.

On July 1st 1980, the government introduced commercial prices on food and other everyday objects, provoking the workers to protest. August 14th 1980, the Gdańsk shipyard goes on strike, soon after inspiring other shipyards in the region and country to go on strike as well. Main demands were the reinstatement of Anna Walentynowicz and the erection of a monument for the fallen shipyard workers killed in the December revolt in 1970. On September 13th, the agreement for a free and independent trade union is ratified. Supreme courts and committees begin to adopt and acknowledge “Solidarność.” In December the monument for the Fallen Shipyard was erected outside the Gdańsk shipyard. 

Siegelbaum, Lewis. "1980: Solidarity in Poland." Seventeen Moments in Soviet History. Soviet History. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. <>.

The formation of the Polish trade union, Solidarity, in 1980, disturbed Soviet Authorities. It was considered a embarrassment for the Marxist-Leninists to be confronted by the workers with such widespread support. The start of Solidarity was the Lenin Shipyard, which was the same shipyard whose workers went on strike in 1970 over raised food prices. There were many other protests over raised food and commercial goods prices and unfair treatment between 1970 and 1980. On the 3rd of September 1980, the Politburo came up six “theses.” Solidarity was characterised as an “anti-socialist opposition” which caused for of a threat to the communist government. In December 1981, there was a declaration of martial law, where the Soviet leadership extended economic assistance.

"The Story of the Solidarity Movement." Solidarity Gdansk Poland. Gdansk Life. Web. 22 Feb. 2012. <>.

Solidarity was established in September 1980 at the Gdańsk shipyards. It was an independent labour union that was the catalyst in the transformation from communism to democracy in Poland. In 1980, Poland was suffering from an economic crisis, which forced the rise in price of goods and curbing the growth of wages. The firing of Anna Walentynowicz, as well as the previous firing of Lech Wałęsa sparked the shipyard strike at the Lenin Shipyard. The strike started on the 14th of August. On the 16th, many other strike committees joined the strikes. By the 18th the Szczecin shipyard joined the strike, which began a wave of more strikes along the coast of Poland. Solidarity was the first independent labour union in the Soviet Bloc.

"1980: Shipyard Poles Strike for Their Rights." BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <>.

Shipyard workers in Gdańsk stage strike over the dismissal of Anna Walentynowicz. The strike was apart of the growing campaign to improve the economic situation for the workers and gain political freedom. Around 16,000 workers succeeded in getting Walentynowicz reinstated and a compromise for more accurate media coverage, and the right to form their own representative bodies instead of using official trade unions. In the 1970 riot, the workers succeeded in getting the Communist Party leader, Wladyslaw Gomulka out of office. They also got the authorities to allow the construction of the Monument for the fallen shipyard workers. The workers also got a 40% pay rise.

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John Brown's Revenge-Arlana Brown(NHD PROJECT)


Arlana Brown

Senior Division

NHD 2012


Process Paper



Out of all the possible topics, I wanted to go for one that reflected my beliefs in the past. The National History Day theme this year was Revolution, Reaction, and Reform in History or the 3 R’s for short. I chose to focus on John Brown and his involvement in slavery. I discovered on my journey that John Brown was an abolitionist but did not just care about saving people he wanted to abolish slaves.


I started my research by searching the Internet for letters or just simple information on his background. What shocked me the most was that he stopped at nothing and he was white. He sacrificed his life to save others and I started to dig even more. For primary sources I searched through personal letters and pictures provided by archives from different magazines. The most interesting part I found out is he refused services before he died, he didn’t want anyone spreading the gospel to him he wanted to be punished for his beliefs in abolishing slavery.


This was my first National History Day project so I chose a documentary video. It allowed me to use my creative side in a formal presentation. In using the documentary video I chose to do more of an informative theme. I did a voice over and at the end I played a actual video clip of a movie showing John Brown going to his “death”. I put text in there occasionally and used actual historians. I chose the pictures in my video to show the reenactment of the trials and tribulations individuals’ back then went through. To edit my pictures I used Photoshop.


John Brown gave others the opportunity to finish a dream he had.  He didn’t know the outcome his ideas would have but he did try. He never felt he was wrong even through his trial. He saw it as a chance to improve America and their way of being. Even though he wasn’t successful he shifted America’s attitude toward slavery. Thus, slavery did not end but for years to come it became better. The debate over John Brown’s intention is a very mixed feeling. Some feel like he was wrong for pursing slavery and knew the outcome of his actions but others feel like he started something and brought light to a very complex topic. John Brown’s Revolution highlights many aspects individuals did not know about.

Annotated Bibliography:

•John Brown on Harpers Ferry. N.d. Painting. Turboverbal, Philadelphia.
Annotation: I think this is important because this is a painting or depiction of the fight between him and the generals. I think this is important because I can actually show what I mean and not just talk about it. We can see that John Brown is still standing with both sides are wounded.
Brown, John. "John Brown to his Brother Frederick. John Brown to his Brother Frederick. John Brown letter." West Virginia Division of Culture And History. (1834): n. page. Web. 16 Feb. 2012.
Annotation: I think this is important to my research because I can compare letters he sent to other people and his brother. It can be a comparison on his style and if he withhold information from certain people. I also like this source because this letter can be
"John Brown Papers held by the Jefferson County Circuit Clerk's Office ." Folder 1 . Jefferson County: Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <>.
Annotation:I think this is a good source because these papers are like his certificate and different legal documents. I can use this in my documentary video to show the comparison between now and then. And how the legal process is different from similar cases to John Brown. I can compare human and inhuman things they do.

Secondary Sources:
Douglas, Fredrick. "Frederick Douglass on John Brown’s Revolutionary Vision." Kasama 16 October 2009, n. pag. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <>.
Annotation: I think this is a great source because Fredrick Douglass is talking about what he thinks of the whole thing. I am using this because John Brown actually wanted Fredrick Douglass to go with him and fight but because of illness he reclined. I think this can be important to my research because I can get his opinion and if illness was the true reason he didn’t go.
Flounders, Sara. "Cuba, Haiti and John Brown – To Rebel Is Justified." [New York, NY] n.d., n. pag. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <>.
Annotation:I think this is a great source also because it is comparing some of the biggest revolutions in the world with John Brown. They are saying why is a street named after John Brown who created so much trouble. I can get very many opinions of John Brown and contrast and compare the effects of his actions. How he has changed America in an American eye.
Faust, Patricia. "John Brown." Civil War Home. n. page. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <>.
Annotation: I think this is a good source because this basically a little biography of him. I am seeing a lot of different things about him. Some people facts about him differ so I can find out why and get a lot of information about him through this.

•Brown, John. "John Brown Speech." John Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial. Charles Town, Virginia, Virginia . November 2, 1859. Speech.
I am using this information because this site goes and uses a passage of what John Brown actually said at his trial. It’s essential because of the major event that led to his death. I think this essential because it can help me and I can find some videos or a voice with him at his trial would be great. In my presentation I incorporate the voice so it sound more real.
Brown, John. "John Brown letters for the years 1833 thru 1859." Family Tales. Springfield, Massachusetts . 16th Jan., 1848.. Reading.
I am using this information because this is actual diaries from John Brown. This letter I will use because it concludes and leads up to his raid on Harper’s Ferry. This is essential because his thoughts are present in this diary.
•Brown, John. Personal Interview. 10.18.1859.
I am using this information because this is an interview at jail with John Brown and a senator. The senator ask him all these questions on how he feels. I think this is essential because this gets his feelings inside the jail. He always goes and says he doesn’t believe that he has been treated unfairly which is very well in this case. He’s at peace for the decisions.
Life and Letters of John Brown; Liberator of Kansas, and Martyr of Virginia, 1885, F. B. Sanborn.
I am using this information because this is another diary of John Brown. This time he decides to write to someone different who he just basically tells them how he is doing. Which I can use this at a different time to depict two different things.
• Virginia State of. John Brown. 1859. Photograph. Library of Virginia, Virginia.
I am using this information because this a photograph of John Brown in court. This is his actual court date and I think this is essential because I know how the court room looked and can focus on that surrounding and how it’s suppose to be incorporated.

Brown, John. "John Brown Speech." John Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial. Charles Town, Virginia, Virginia . November 2, 1859. Speech.
-I am using this information because this site goes and uses a passage of what John Brown actually said at his trial. It’s essential because of the major event that led to his death. I think this essential because it can help me and I can find some videos or a voice with him at his trial would be great. In my presentation I incorporate the voice so it sound more real.
•Linder, Douglas. " The Trial of John Brown: A Commentary." 2005. Lecture.
-I am using this information because this is a commentary of everything that went on that day. This essential because it’s a historian who study this in depth and gave everything he knew about it. I can use this to find out thoughts of the jury and the judge.
Brown, John. "John Brown's Speech to the Court at his Trial." John Brown's Other Statements at his Trial. Virginia. 1859. Speech.
-I am using this information because the speech he uses has key points. I can point this out in the presentation because it shows the different views and how he feels his self. I think this is important because it also other quotes from him. “I feel entirely satisfied with the treatment I have received on my trial.” I think he played the devil advocate which is in good because it’s not so bias.
•"Virginia v. John Brown." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <>.
-I am using this information because this is the trial that day. It goes in to depth of the state of Virgina vs. him and it gives information of really happened. I could incorporate this because I can factor in the tone of the court room if it was more so they were being mad at him for choosing to live that way of trying to help others and wanting everyone to have equal rights.
•Brown, John. "The Trial of John Brown." The Trial of John Brown. NEW YORK. Charlestown, Virginia. 1859. Lecture.
-I am using this information because this is also another copy of the lecture. It also shows a depiction of a photo of John Brown at his execution being hanged. I need this information because the whole way his body structure is can play a big part of how I depict it in my presentation.

The Hanging ." PBS. Web. 5 Jan 2012. <>.
-I am using this information because this is in depth more of the execution. What they did to him? What time he was executed because I want to do a movie or perform it live it goes in to the costumes and the lighting of every scene.
•, and Victor Hugo. The Hanging of John Brown. 1860. Photograph. n.p.
-I am using this information because this is another picture of him being hanged from a different view. Another reason I need this is because of the body structure and his face. In this source I would merely focus on the people around him rather then focusing on him.


•Aftermath." Web. 5 Jan 2012. <>.
-I am using this information to end my presentation. This is the aftermath of the execution which I will focus on every one's reactions. I will be the devil’s advocate and get one good review and one bad review. All to conclude the presentation.
•, and Horace Pippin. John Brown Going to His Hanging. 1942. Photograph. PAFA, Philadelphia.
-I am using this photograph to be the near ending part of the presentation. In this photograph John Brown is being carried to his hanging. I will depict it a little differently though but while going to his execution I can zoom in on people’s reaction. In the picture its just every standing around while about 4-5 guys carry him.
•John Brown Hanging. 1859. Painting. n.p.
-This is another depiction of John Brown Hanging a painting. This can be used because everyone has a different view on how he was hung and how it happened. But these pictures seem to be so real because they include very much detail. This picture can be used because the picture kind of zooms just on him. Something that is different. The background is very important to. I can figure out where he actually is.

 . "John Brown's Raid." U.S History. U.s History, n.d. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <>.

-I wanted to use this source because it goes in depth of how the raid happened. It also includes visual explanations. I want to use the first paragraph to explore in depth on the history on why he wanted to raid Harper’s Ferry and how many people were involved.
•, and First Last. John Brown Raid Photos. N.d. Photograph. West Virginia Archives and History, Virginia.
-I wanted to use this source because this is an picture of John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry in Virgina. I think this is essential because I can compare pictures of the Harper before he invaded it and the ruins(aftermath) of the effects.
"John Brown's Raid, 1859" EyeWitness to History,
-I wanted to use this source because this is also an eye witness account of what happened. This includes quotes from John Brown from that day. I think it will be essential because in my presentation while presenting I can make these points very big and important.
•John Brown." Harpers Ferry. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <>.
-I wanted to use this source because it gives a little more information of the situation. I use this because it goes in to what he was charged with him due to the crimes he committed. I think this is essential because I need to use something and the presentation would be way better if I knew on how to incorporate his crimes and how it would flow together.
•"Raiders." Harpers Ferry. Web. 6 Jan 2012. <>.
-I wanted to use this source because this is the perfect thing to incorporate on who also was involved in the raid with John Brown. Without them he wouldn’t even be able to get  that far with the crime. I think it’s essential because I can find some documents and see if they were convicted of any crimes with John Brown.


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Process Paper Kimberly Parker Jordam Mc & Becca Fenton

All of the members of the group practice the religion Christianity. None of us really knew how our religion became so popular. As soon as this project was given to the group, within the first five minutes of thinking about what we wanted to do our research on, we came up with the idea of the uprising of Christianity. We thought that the best time period to study for this particular topic would be the Crusades. We started our research right away. We explored many different websites and went to the library and took out books to read about Constantine and the Crusades. We decided who’s going to to do what specific event and we got to work! We gathered up all of our information and put it together. We found that our information flowed together so well that we thought it would look best displayed on a website. So we made a website and then later modified it to be a bit better. 

Our project relates to NHD theme because we took a very interested time period and explored it. We became reporters from over a thousand years ago and spread the good news of the uprising of Christianity. We got to witness first hand Constantine declaring that he is converting into a new religion. We got to explore this time period knowing what we know already, knowing that the dates we visited are dates where events happened that changed our world forever.

Here is our website w/ everything included. Our sources are under "More".

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National History Day: The Last Veracity

    To summarize the importance and meaning behind the project in essence would be insufficient (considering the detail and history). This summary is only a small portion of the intensity and analysis behind the simplicity of these maters makes the entirety of it most important. The Civil Rights Movement heavily influenced the sound of poetry as poetry expanded into modern day culture. Hence, expanding into new genres that reflected not only things related to the movement, but a reflection of world issues and surrounding environments. When everything is placed into perspective, a chain reaction of opportunity, luck, and dedication created the expansion of mainstream media, as well as diversified the culture of America. Though at first hand this may not seem clear, you must first step from outside of the frame in order to see the picture.
The Last Veracity

(Side Note: There are two pages to the website, make sure to click the side tabs.)
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